8 Mastering Advanced Editing Techniques – Adobe Premiere Pro Classroom in a Book (2020 release)

8 Mastering Advanced Editing Techniques

Lesson overview

In this lesson, you’ll learn how to do the following:

  • Perform a four-point edit.

  • Change the speed or duration of clips in your sequence.

  • Replace a clip in a sequence.

  • Replace footage in a project.

  • Create a nested sequence.

  • Perform basic trimming on media to refine edits.

  • Apply slip and slide edits to refine your edit.

  • Trim clips dynamically.

This lesson will take about 120 minutes to complete. To get the lesson files used in this chapter, download them from the web page for this book at www.adobepress.com/PremiereCIB2020. For more information, see “Accessing the lesson files and Web Edition” in the Getting Started section at the beginning of this book.

In Adobe Premiere Pro, the main editing commands are straightforward to master. More advanced techniques take a little time to learn, but they’re worth it! They’ll accelerate your editing and provide the understanding you’ll need to produce the highest-level professional results.

Starting the lesson

In this lesson, you’ll use several short sequences to explore advanced editing concepts in Adobe Premiere Pro. The goal is to get hands-on with the techniques you’ll need for advanced editing.

  1. Open the project Lesson 08.prproj in the Lessons folder.

  2. Save the project as Lesson 08 Working.prproj in the Lessons folder.

  3. Choose Editing in the Workspaces panel, or choose Window > Workspaces > Editing.

  4. Reset the workspace to the saved version by clicking the Editing menu in the Workspaces panel, by choosing Window > Workspaces > Reset To Saved Layout, or by double-clicking the Editing workspace name.

Performing a four-point edit

In previous lessons, you used the standard technique of three-point editing. You used three In and Out points (split between the Source Monitor as well as the Program Monitor or Timeline panel) to set the source, duration, and location of an edit.

But what happens if you set four points?

The short answer is that you have to make a choice. It’s likely that the duration you’ve marked in the Source Monitor differs from the duration you’ve marked in the Program Monitor or in the Timeline panel.

In this case, when you attempt to perform the edit using a keyboard shortcut or on-screen button, a dialog box warns you the durations don’t match and asks you to make a decision about what to change. Most often, you’ll discard one of the points.

Setting editing options for four-point edits

If you perform a four-point edit with mismatched selected durations in the clip and the sequence, the Fit Clip dialog appears to alert you, with options to resolve the issue. You can ignore one of the four points or automatically change the speed of the clip to fit the new duration in the sequence.

  • Change Clip Speed (Fit To Fill): The first choice assumes that you set four points with different durations deliberately. Premiere Pro preserves the source clip’s In and Out points but adjusts its playback speed to match the duration you set in the Timeline panel or in the Program Monitor. This is an excellent choice if you want to precisely adjust clip playback speed to fill a gap.

  • Ignore Source In Point: The source clip’s In point is ignored, converting your edit back to a three-point edit. When you have an Out point and no In point in the Source Monitor, the In point is worked out automatically based on the duration set in the Timeline panel or Program Monitor (or the end of the clip). This option is available only if the source clip is longer than the duration set in the sequence.

  • Ignore Source Out Point: The source clip’s Out point is ignored, converting your edit back to a three-point edit. When you have an In point and no Out point in the Source Monitor, the Out point is worked out based on the duration set in the Timeline panel or Program Monitor (or the end of the clip). This option is available only if the source clip is longer than the targeted duration.

    Tip

    You can choose to set a default behavior when a four-point edit occurs by selecting an option and selecting Always Use This Choice. If you change your mind, open the Preferences dialog box, click Timeline, and select Fit Clip Dialog Opens For Edit Range Mismatches. The Fit Clip dialog box will then open when an edit duration mismatch occurs.

  • Ignore Sequence In Point: The sequence In point is ignored, making this a three-point edit. The duration is taken from the Source Monitor.

  • Ignore Sequence Out Point: The sequence Out point is ignored, making this a three-point edit. The duration is taken from the Source Monitor.

Making a four-point edit

Let’s perform a four-point edit. You’ll change the playback speed of a clip to fit a duration set in the sequence.

  1. If it’s not already open in the Timeline panel, open the sequence 01 Four Point. Play through the sequence to review the content.

  2. Locate the section with In and Out points already set. You should see a highlighted range in the Timeline panel.

  3. Browse inside the bin called Clips To Load, and open the clip called Laura_04 in the Source Monitor.

    Clip In and Out points should already be set on this clip.

  4. In the Timeline panel, check that the source track indicators are patched correctly, with Source V1 positioned next to Timeline Video 1. There’s no audio in this source clip, so you just need to check the Source V1.

  5. In the Source Monitor, click the Overwrite button to make the edit.

  6. In the Fit Clip dialog box, select the Change Clip Speed (Fit To Fill) option, and click OK.

    Premiere Pro applies the edit.

    Note

    Changing the playback speed of a clip counts as a visual effect. Notice the small fx badge on the clip changes color to indicate an effect has been applied.

  7. Zoom in to the Timeline panel using the Navigator controls at the bottom of the panel until you can see the name and speed information on the Laura_04 clip you just edited into the sequence.

    The percentage shows the new playback speed. The speed has been adjusted perfectly to fit the new duration.

  8. Play the sequence to see the result of your edit and the speed change. The result is not super smooth, but you’ll discover ways to improve the results when applying speed adjustments later.

Changing clip playback speed

Slow motion is one of the most commonly used effects in video post-production. It can be an effective way to add drama or to give the audience more time to experience a moment. You might change the speed of a clip for technical reasons or for artistic impact.

Note

When changing the speed of a clip, you will usually achieve smoother playback if the new speed is an even multiple or fraction of the original clip playback speed. For example, changing a 24 fps clip to play back at 25% speed will result in 6 fps, and this will usually look smoother than if the clip is set to a nonequally divided playback speed, like 27.45%. Sometimes you’ll get the best results by changing clip playback speed and then trimming to get a precise duration.

The fit-to-fill edit you just learned about is one way to change clip playback speed, and its results can vary. If the media originally had clear, smooth motion, you’ll probably get better results. Also, because fit-to-fill edits can result in precise partial frame rates, they may produce inconsistent motion.

One way to achieve high-quality slow motion is to record at a higher frame rate than your sequence playback frame rate. If you play the video at a slower frame rate than it was recorded at, you’ll see slow motion—provided the new frame rate is still at least as high as your sequence frame rate.

For example, imagine a 10-second video clip was recorded at 48 frames per second but your sequence is set to 24 frames per second. You can set your footage to play at 24 frames per second, matching the sequence. Playback will be smooth, with no frame rate conversion when the clip is added to the sequence. However, the clip will be playing at half its recording frame rate, resulting in 50% slow motion. It will take twice as long to play back, so the clip will now have a 20-second duration.

Let’s try this.

  1. Open the sequence 02 Laura In The Snow. Play the clip in the sequence.

    The clip plays in slow motion for the following reasons:

    • The clip was recorded at 96 frames per second but...

    • The clip is set to 24 frames per second playback (this was set by the camera).

    The sequence is configured for 24 frames per second playback, so it matches the clip playback setting and no conforming is necessary.

  2. In the Timeline panel, right-click the clip and choose Reveal In Project.

    This highlights the clip in the Project panel.

  3. Right-click the clip in the Project panel and choose Modify > Interpret Footage. We’ll use the Interpret Footage dialog box to tell Premiere Pro how to play back this clip.

  4. Select the Assume This Frame Rate option, and enter 96 in the box. This tells Premiere Pro to play the clip at 96 frames per second (the original recording speed). Click OK.

    Look back at the Timeline panel. The clip has changed appearance.

    You have given the clip a faster frame rate, and with the new playback speed it has a shorter duration. Rather than change the sequence clip duration, which might impact the timing of your edit, diagonal lines indicate the portion of the clip that now has no media. The part of the sequence clip that has no media is now empty.

    Note

    If you’re using a system with slow storage, you may need to lower the playback resolution in the Program Monitor to play clips with fast frame rates without dropping frames.

  5. Play the sequence again.

    The clip plays at regular speed because it was originally recorded at 96 frames per second. It’s much less smooth—not because there’s anything wrong with the clip but because the original camera recording was bumpy!

  6. Drag the Laura_01.mp4 clip onto the sequence close to the first instance, so you can see both versions side by side.

The new clip instance is shorter, matching the playback time at the new frame rate. If you were to slow the clip playback speed to 25%, it would restore the original frames, producing slow motion.

Changing clip speed or duration

Although it’s more common to slow clips down, speeding up clips is a useful effect as well. The Speed/Duration command in the Timeline panel can change the playback speed for a clip in two different ways. You can set the duration of a clip to match a certain time, or you can set the playback speed as a percentage.

For example, if you set a clip to play at 50% speed, it will play back at half-speed; 25% would be one-quarter speed. Premiere Pro allows you to set playback speeds up to two decimal places, so you could have 27.13% if you wanted.

Let’s explore this technique.

  1. Open the sequence 03 Speed and Duration. Play the sequence to get a sense of the normal playback speed. It’s a 20-second clip.

  2. Right-click the clip in the sequence and choose Speed/Duration. You can also select the clip in the sequence and choose Clip > Speed/Duration.

    The Clip Speed/Duration dialog box gives you several options for controlling the clip playback speed.

    • If you click the small chain icon , you can toggle on and off linking the clip duration and clip playback speed. If the chain is broken, , you can change the speed or duration settings without them updating each other. When settings are linked or unlinked in this way, they are described as ganged or unganged.

      Note

      If you set a duration that is longer than the available media, based on the playback speed you set, you won’t be able to click OK. The button will be dimmed.

    • By default, if there are other clips in the sequence after this one, shortening the clip will leave a gap. If you make the clip longer than the space available before the next clip, the speed change will have no effect. That’s because the clip can’t move the next clip to make room for the new duration when you change these settings. If you select the Ripple Edit, Shifting Trailing Clips option, the clip will make space for itself, pushing other clips later in the sequence.

    • To play a clip backward, select the Reverse Speed option.

    • If a clip has audio, consider selecting the Maintain Audio Pitch check box. This will keep the clip’s original pitch at the new speed. With this option disabled, the pitch will naturally go up or down as the speed changes.

    Tip

    The option to maintain audio pitch is more effective for small speed changes; dramatic resampling can produce unnatural sounding results—consider adjusting the audio in Adobe Audition if you need to make a more significant speed change. See the Adobe Audition Classroom in a Book for audio speed change workflows and more.

  3. Make sure Speed and Duration are linked with the chain icon on. Change the speed to 200%, and click OK.

    Play the clip in the Timeline panel. Notice that the clip is now 10 seconds long. That’s because it’s playing at 200% speed: Double the playback speed means half the original duration.

  4. Choose Edit > Undo, or press Command+Z (macOS) or Ctrl+Z (Windows).

  5. Select the clip on the Timeline, and press Command+R (macOS) or Ctrl+R (Windows) to open the Clip Speed/Duration dialog box.

  6. Click the chain icon to make sure the Speed and Duration settings are unlinked . Then, change Speed to 50%.

  7. Click OK; then play the clip. The clip plays back slower, with unlinked duration, so it’s the same length on the Timeline.

    Tip

    You can change the speed of multiple clips at the same time. To do so, select multiple clips and choose Clip > Speed/Duration. When you change the speed of multiple clips, be sure to pay attention to the Ripple Edit, Shifting Trailing Clips option. This will automatically close or expand gaps for all the selected clips after the speed change.

    The clip is now playing at 50% speed, so it should play for twice as long. But because you’ve turned off the link between playback speed and duration, the second half has been trimmed to maintain the 20-second duration in the sequence.

    Now try reversing playback.

  8. Select the clip, and open the Clip Speed/Duration dialog box again.

  9. Leave Speed at 50%, but this time select Reverse Speed; then click OK.

  10. Play the clip. Now it plays in reverse at 50% slow motion. You’ll see a negative sign next to the new speed displayed in the sequence.

    Note

    Speed changes must always result in a clip duration that is whole frames. The speed may be adjusted automatically, with the precise new speed displayed on the clip, to achieve this.

Changing clip speed with the Rate Stretch tool

Sometimes you’ll have the perfect clip to fill a gap in your sequence—but it is just a little too short or a little too long. This is where the Rate Stretch tool helps.

  1. Open the sequence 04 Rate Stretch.

    This sequence is synchronized to music, and the clips contain the desired content, but the first video clip is too short. You can make a guess and try to make an exact Speed/Duration adjustment, but it’s much easier and faster to use the Rate Stretch tool to drag the end of the clip to fill the gap.

  2. In the Tools panel, press and hold the Ripple Edit tool to select the Rate Stretch tool .

  3. With this tool, drag the right edge of the first video clip until it reaches the left edge of the second video clip.

    The speed of the clip changes to fill the gap. The contents haven’t changed; the clip is playing more slowly.

    Tip

    If you change your mind about a change made with the Rate Stretch tool, you can always use it to stretch a clip back. Alternatively, you can use the Speed/Duration command and enter a Speed value of 100% to restore the clip to its original speed.

  4. Using the same tool, drag the right edge of the second video clip to meet the left edge of the third clip.

  5. Drag the right edge of the third clip until it matches the end of the audio.

    The duration of the video now matches that of the music. You may need to zoom in to the Timeline panel to see the new playback speed of a clip.

  6. Play the sequence to view the result. Some of the faster action is noticeably jumpy.

  7. Press the shortcut key V or click the Selection tool in the Tools panel to select it.

  8. With the Timeline panel active, press Command+A (macOS) or Ctrl+A (Windows) to select all the clips.

    Note

    Using Optical Flow to render a new playback speed can produce visual artifacts, particularly with footage that has motion blur as a result of a slow camera shutter speed. Always check the results.

  9. Right-click any clip and choose Time Interpolation > Optical Flow. This smooths playback when changing clip speed. It’s a more advanced system for rendering playback speed changes and needs to be rendered before you preview the result.

  10. Render and play the sequence to see the result. A great improvement!

Optical Flow is usually worth choosing when adjusting clip playback speed. You can adjust and preview the timing of playback speed changes using the default Frame Sampling renderer. Then, when the timing is right, switch to Optical Flow and preview again.

Replacing clips and media

It’s common to swap one sequence clip for another as you try different versions of an edit.

This might mean making a global replacement, such as replacing one version of an animated logo with a newer file. You might also want to swap out one clip in a sequence for another that you have in a bin. Depending on the task at hand, you’ll use different approaches.

Dragging in a replacement clip

You can drag a new shot onto a sequence clip you’d like to replace. This is called a replace edit.

Let’s try it.

  1. Open the 05 Replace Clip sequence.

  2. Play the sequence.

    On the Video 2 track, clips 2 and 3 are actually the same SHOT4 clip repeated. The clip has motion keyframes applied to make it spin onto the screen and spin off again. You’ll learn how to create these kinds of animation effects in Lesson 9, “Putting Clips in Motion.”

    Let’s replace the first instance of the clip SHOT4. You don’t want to have to re-create the effects and animation, as these are already set perfectly. This is an ideal scenario for replacing a sequence clip.

  3. From the Clips To Load bin, drag the Boat Replacement clip straight from the Project panel over the first instance of the SHOT4 clip in the sequence, but don’t release the mouse button yet. It’s not necessary to position the pointer precisely; just make sure it’s over the clip you want to replace.

    The clip is longer than the existing clip that you intend to replace.

  4. Hold the Option (macOS) or Alt (Windows) key. While you’re holding this modifier key, the replacement clip snaps to fit the length of the clip it’s replacing. Just enough of the new clip will be used to replace the existing clip in the sequence.

    Release the mouse button while still holding the modifier key to replace the clip.

  5. Play the sequence. All the picture-in-picture clips have the same effect applied. The new clip inherits the settings and effects from the clip it replaced. This is a quick and easy way to try different shots in a sequence.

Performing a synchronized replace edit

When you drag to replace a sequence clip, Premiere Pro synchronizes the first frame (or In point) of the replacement clip with the first visible frame of the existing clip in the sequence. This is often fine, but what if you need to synchronize a particular moment in the middle of the action, such a hand clap or a door closing?

For this, you can use a more advanced type of replace edit and synchronize a particular frame of the replacement clip with a particular frame of the clip it’s replacing.

  1. Open the sequence 06 Replace Edit.

    This is the same sequence you previously fixed, but this time you’ll position the replacement clip precisely.

  2. Position the playhead in the sequence at approximately 00:00:06:00. The playhead will be the sync point for the edit you are about to perform.

  3. Click the first instance of the SHOT4 clip in the sequence to select it.

  4. From the Sources bin, open the clip SHOT5.mov in the Source Monitor.

  5. In the Source Monitor, position the playhead just after the dog turns its head. There’s a marker on the clip for guidance. You can click the marker to line up the playhead with it.

  6. Make sure the Timeline panel is active, with the first instance of SHOT4.mov selected, and choose Clip > Replace With Clip > From Source Monitor, Match Frame. The clip is replaced.

  7. Play the newly edited sequence to check the edit.

    The playhead position in the Source Monitor and Program Monitor was synchronized. The sequence clip duration, effects, and settings are all applied to the replacement clip. This technique can be a huge time-saver when the precise timing of action needs to be matched.

Using the Replace Footage feature

While a replace edit replaces a clip in a sequence, the Replace Footage feature replaces footage in the Project panel so that the clip links to a different media file. This can be of great benefit when you need to replace a clip that occurs several times in a sequence or in multiple sequences. You might use this to update an animated logo or a piece of music, for example.

When you replace footage in the Project panel, all instances of the clip you replace are changed anywhere the clip is used.

  1. Load the sequence 07 Replace Footage.

  2. Play the sequence.

    Let’s replace the graphic on the fourth video track with something more interesting.

  3. In the Clips To Load bin, click to select the clip DRAGON_LOGO.psd in the Project panel.

  4. Choose Clip > Replace Footage, or right-click the clip in the Project panel and choose Replace Footage.

  5. Navigate to the Lessons/Assets/Graphics folder, and open the DRAGON_LOGO_FIX.psd file.

    Note

    The Replace Footage command cannot be undone. To switch back to the original clip, choose Clip > Replace Footage again to navigate to and relink the original file, or choose File > Revert to restore the current project to the last saved version (you’ll lose changes made since you last saved).

  6. Play the sequence. The graphic has been updated throughout the sequence and project.

    The clip name in the Project panel has updated to match the new file.

Nesting sequences

A nested sequence is a sequence contained within another sequence. You can break up a long project into more manageable parts by creating separate sequences for each section. Then, you can drag each sequence—with all its clips, graphics, layers, multiple audio/video tracks, and effects—into another, “master” sequence. Nested sequences look and behave like single audio/video clips, but you can edit their contents and see the changes update inside the master sequence.

Nesting sequences is quite an advanced workflow, but if you can get to grips with treating sequences as clips, it can be a powerful addition to your post-production workflow. Nested sequences:

  • Simplify editing by allowing you to create complex sequences in separate parts. This can help you avoid running into conflicts or accidentally moving clips and ruining your edit.

  • Allow you to apply an effect to a group of clips in a single step.

  • Let you use sequences as source media in multiple other sequences. For example, you can create one intro sequence for a multipart series and add it to each episode. If you change the intro sequence, it will immediately update in every sequence that it’s nested.

  • Allow you to organize your work in the same way you might create additional bins in the Project panel.

  • Allow you to apply transitions to a group of clips as a single item.

In the upper-left corner of the Timeline panel, there’s an important button with a rather long name: Insert And Overwrite Sequences As Nests Or Individual Clips. This lets you toggle between adding the contents of a sequence or nesting it .

Adding a nested sequence

One reason to use a nest is to reuse an existing edited sequence. Let’s add an edited opening title into a sequence now.

Tip

A quick way to create a nested sequence is to drag a sequence from the Project panel into the appropriate track or tracks of the currently active sequence in the Timeline panel. You can also drag a sequence into the Source Monitor, add In and Out points, and perform insert and overwrite edits to add a selected section to another sequence.

  1. Open the sequence 08 Bike Race, and make sure the option is set to nest sequences .

  2. Set an In point at the start of the sequence.

  3. In the Project panel, single-click the sequence 09 Race Open to select it. In the Timeline panel, make sure that source track V1 is patched to (lined up with) the sequence Video 1 track. Make sure the source track A1 is patched to the Audio 1 track.

    When a clip or sequence is selected in the Project panel or open in the Source Monitor, its source track indicators appear in the Timeline panel so you can configure track patching.

  4. You can use any method to edit a sequence into another sequence—sequences really do behave just like clips when you nest. On this occasion, press the Comma (,) key.

    This performs an insert edit. Because you set an In point in the sequence, it’s not important where the Timeline playhead is—the In point will be used for timing.

  5. Play the 08 Bike Race sequence to see the result.

    The 09 Race Open sequence is added as a single clip, even though it contains multiple video tracks and audio clips. It is now nested.

    Tip

    If you want to make a change to the contents of a nested sequence, double-click it, and it will open in a new Timeline panel, in the same panel group as the currently open sequence.

  6. Undo that last edit by pressing Command+Z (macOS) or Ctrl+Z (Windows).

  7. Turn off sequence nesting .

  8. Drag the sequence 09 Race Open from the Project panel into the beginning of the sequence in the Timeline panel while holding Command (macOS) or Ctrl (Windows). This also performs an insert edit.

    The individual clips in the Race Open sequence are added to the current sequence. These instances of the clips are not directly connected to the Race Open sequence. Also, the contents of that sequence haven’t changed.

    Using sequences this way allows you to group clips based on their contents and review them in one long stream, before adding them to your main sequence.

Performing regular trimming

You can adjust the part of a clip that is used in a sequence in several ways. This process is generally called trimming. When you trim, you can make the selected part of the original clip shorter or longer in the sequence. Some trimming methods affect just one clip, while others can adjust the relationship between two adjacent clips, or even multiple clips.

Trimming in the Source Monitor

A clip edited into a sequence is a separate instance from the original clip in the Project panel. You can view a sequence clip in the Source Monitor by double-clicking it in the Timeline panel. Once the clip is open in the Source Monitor, you can adjust its In and Out points. The clip will update in the sequence.

By default, when you open a sequence clip segment in the Source Monitor, the Source Monitor navigator will be zoomed in to the existing selection.

You can adjust the navigator to explore all of the available content in the clip.

There are two basic ways to change existing In and Out points in the Source Monitor.

  • Add new In and Out points: In the Source Monitor, set new In or Out points, replacing the current selection. If the clip has another clip adjacent to it in the sequence, before or after the current clip, you cannot extend the In or Out point in that direction.

  • Drag In and Out points: Position your pointer over an In or Out point in the mini timeline at the bottom of the Source Monitor. The pointer changes into a red-and-black pointer with two-way arrows, indicating that a trim can be performed. Now you can drag left or right to change the In or Out point.

    Once again, if the clip has another clip adjacent to it in the sequence, you cannot extend the current clip in that direction.

Trimming in a sequence

Another, faster way to trim clips is directly in the Timeline panel. Making a single clip shorter or longer is called a regular trim, and it’s fairly easy.

  1. Open the sequence 10 Regular Trim.

  2. Play the sequence.

    Tip

    The keyboard shortcut for the Selection tool is V.

    The last shot is cut off, and it needs to be extended to match the end of the music.

  3. Make sure you have the Selection tool selected.

  4. Position the pointer over the right edge of the last video clip in the sequence.

    The pointer changes into the red Trim Out pointer with a directional arrow.

    Precisely hovering the pointer over the end of a clip, you can change between trimming the Out point (open to the left) and trimming the In point of the next clip (open to the right). In this case, there’s no next clip, of course.

    Note

    If you make a clip shorter, it will leave a gap between it and any adjacent clips. Later in this lesson you’ll learn to use the Ripple Edit tool to automatically remove gaps or push clips later in a sequence when you trim a clip.

    This clip has a transition effect applied to the end. You may need to zoom in to make it easier to trim the clip and not adjust the transition effect.

  5. Drag the edge to the right until it meets the end of the audio file. A tool tip shows you how much you’ve trimmed.

    In this instance, the tool tip also shows that the trim has reached the end of the original media.

  6. Release the drag to apply the trim.

Performing advanced trimming

The trimming methods you’ve learned so far have their limitations. They can leave gaps in the sequence caused by shortening a clip or prevent you from lengthening a shot if there’s an adjacent clip.

Fortunately, Premiere Pro offers several more ways to trim. Let’s check out ripple edits.

Making ripple edits

You can avoid introducing gaps when trimming by using the Ripple Edit tool rather than the Selection tool.

Note

When performing a ripple edit, you might shift items on other tracks out of sync. By default, sync locks keep items on all tracks in sync.

You can use the Ripple Edit tool to trim a clip in the same way that you use the Selection tool. When you use the Ripple Edit tool to change the duration of a clip, the adjustment ripples through the sequence. That is, clips after the clip you have trimmed slide to the left to fill the gap, or they slide to the right to make room if the clip gets longer.

Tip

The keyboard shortcut for the Ripple Edit tool is B.

Let’s try it.

  1. Open the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.

  2. In the Tools panel, press and hold the Rate Stretch tool to reveal the tools hidden underneath and select the Ripple Edit tool in the Tools panel. The Rate Stretch tool is usually accessed by pressing and holding the Rolling Edit tool.

  3. Hover the Ripple Edit tool pointer over the inside-right edge of the seventh clip (SHOT7) until it turns into a yellow, left-facing bracket and arrow.

    The shot is too short, so let’s add some more footage from the clip handle.

  4. Drag to the right until the timecode in the tool tip reads +00:00:01:10.

    Notice that while you’re using the Ripple Edit tool, the Program Monitor displays the last frame of the clip on the left side of the edit, and the first frame of the clip on the right side. The image updates dynamically while you trim.

  5. Release the drag to complete the edit.

    The clip you have trimmed now has a longer duration, so the clip to its right slides right to make space for it. Play that part of the sequence to see whether the edit works smoothly.

  6. Make another trimming adjustment—add another +2:00 seconds to the end of the SHOT7 clip. Play through the newly trimmed edit between SHOT7 and SHOT8.

    This time, the trim has exposed a slight on-camera shake that you’ll work on next.

    Tip

    You can temporarily use the Selection tool as a Ripple Edit tool by holding Command (macOS) or Ctrl (Windows). Be sure to click to one side of the edit to avoid performing a rolling edit (described next).

Making rolling edits

Using the Ripple Edit tool changes the overall length of the sequence. This is because one clip gets shorter or longer while the rest of the sequence moves to close the gap (or moves out of the way).

There’s another way to change the timing of an edit: a rolling edit, sometimes referred to as a double-roller or dual-roller trim.

With a rolling edit, the overall length of the sequence does not change. Instead, a rolling edit shortens one clip and lengthens another at the same time, adjusting the clips by the same number of frames.

For example, if you use the Rolling Edit tool to extend a clip by two seconds, you will also shorten the adjacent clip by two seconds.

  1. Continue working with the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.

    Tip

    The keyboard shortcut for the Rolling Edit tool is N.

  2. Press and hold the Ripple Edit tool to select the Rolling Edit tool in the Tools panel.

  3. Drag the edit point between SHOT7 and SHOT8 (the last two clips on the Timeline). Use the Program Monitor split screen to find a better-matching edit between the two shots, dragging the edit left to remove the camera shake.

    Tip

    Zoom in to the Timeline panel to make more accurate adjustments.

    Note

    You can use the Selection tool while holding the Command (macOS) or Ctrl (Windows) key as a shortcut for the Ripple Edit tool or Rolling Edit tool.

    Try rolling the edit to the left 1 second and 20 frames (–01:20). You can use the Program Monitor timecode or the pop-up timecode in the Timeline panel to find the edit, and if you pre-position the playhead, the edit will snap to it as you drag.

    Note

    When trimming, it’s possible to trim a clip to a 0 (zero) duration (removing it from the Timeline altogether).

Making slip edits

A slip trim changes both the In point and Out point of a single sequence clip segment at the same time, by the same amount, rolling the visible contents in position.

Because a slip trim changes the beginning and end by equal amounts, it doesn’t change the duration of your sequence. In this way, it’s the same as a rolling trim.

Slip trims change only the clip you select; adjacent clips before or after the clip you adjust are not affected. Using the Slip tool to adjust a clip is a little like moving a conveyor belt: The visible part of the original clip changes inside the Timeline clip segment without changing the length of the clip or the sequence.

  1. Continue working with the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.

  2. Select the Slip tool . The keyboard shortcut for the Slip tool is Y.

  3. Drag SHOT5 left and right.

  4. Take a look at the Program Monitor while you perform the slip edit.

The two top images are the Out point of SHOT4 and the In point of SHOT6, before and after the clip you are adjusting; they don’t change. The two larger images are the In point and Out point of SHOT5, the clip you are adjusting; these edit points do change.

The Slip tool is well worth taking time to get to grips with. It can be the fastest tool for adjusting timing when cutting action.

Making slide edits

The Slide tool works by leaving the duration of the clip you’re sliding unchanged. Instead, the Out point of the previous clip and the In point of the following clip are changed by equal amounts, in opposite directions. It’s another form of dual-roller trim. In a sense, it’s the opposite of a slip trim.

Because you’re changing the other clip durations by an equal number of frames, the length of the sequence doesn’t change.

  1. Continue working with the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.

  2. Click and hold the Slip tool in the Tools panel to select the Slide tool . The keyboard shortcut for the Slide tool is U.

  3. Position the Slide tool over the middle of the second clip in the sequence, SHOT2.

  4. Drag the clip left or right.

  5. Take a look at the Program Monitor as you perform the slide edit.

The two top images are the In point and Out point of SHOT2—the clip you are dragging. They do not change because you are not changing the selected part of SHOT2.

The two larger images are the Out point and In point of the previous and next clips. These edit points change as you slide the selected clip over those adjacent clips.

Trimming in the Program Monitor

If you’d like to trim with more control, you can use the Program Monitor Trim mode. In this mode, both the outgoing and incoming frames of the trim you’re working on are displayed, and there are dedicated buttons for making precise adjustments.

When the Program Monitor is set to Trim mode, pressing the spacebar to play the sequence loops playback around the edit you have selected. This means you can continually adjust the timing of an edit and view the result immediately.

You can perform three types of trims using the Program Monitor Trim mode controls. You learned about each of these earlier in this lesson.

  • Regular trim: This basic type of trim moves the edge of the selected clip. This method trims only one side of the edit point. It moves the selected edit point either forward or backward in the sequence, but it doesn’t shift any of the other clips.

  • Roll trim: The roll trim moves the tail of one clip and the head of the adjacent clip. It lets you adjust an edit point (provided there are handles). No gap is created, and the sequence duration doesn’t change.

  • Ripple trim: This moves the selected edge of the edit either earlier or later. Clips after the edit shift to close a gap or make room for a longer clip.

Using Trim mode in the Program Monitor

When the Program Monitor is in Trim mode, some of the controls change to make it easier to focus on trimming. To use Trim mode, you need to activate it by selecting an edit point between two clips. There are three ways to do this.

  • Double-click an edit point (the left or right end of a clip) on the Timeline with a selection tool or a trimming tool.

  • With the correct Timeline track indicator enabled, press Shift+T. The playhead will move to the nearest edit point, and the Program Monitor will switch to Trim mode.

  • Drag around one or more edits using the Ripple Edit tool or Rolling Edit tool to select them; this will switch the Program Monitor to Trim mode.

Tip

You also can select edits by dragging a rectangle around them using the Selection tool if you hold Command (macOS) or Ctrl (Windows).

When invoked, Trim mode shows two video clips. The box on the left shows the outgoing clip (also called A side). The box on the right shows the incoming clip (also called B side). Below the frames are five buttons and two indicators.

  1. Out Shift counter: This shows how many frames the Out point for the A side has changed.

  2. Trim Backward Many: This performs the selected trim, adjusting by multiple frames earlier. You can change the size of the adjustment in the Large Trim Offset option in the Trim section of the Preferences dialog box.

  3. Trim Backward: This performs the selected trim, adjusting by one frame at a time earlier.

  4. Apply Default Transitions to Selection: This applies the default transition effect to selected edit points.

  5. Trim Forward: This is like Trim Backward except it adjusts the edit one frame later.

  6. Trim Forward Many: This is like Trim Backward Many except it adjusts the edit multiple frames later.

  7. In Shift counter: This shows how many frames the In point for the B side has changed.

Choosing a trimming method in the Program Monitor

You’ve already learned about the three types of trims you can perform (regular, roll, and ripple). Using Trim mode in the Program Monitor makes the process easier because it provides rich visual feedback. It also provides subtle control when dragging, regardless of the Timeline panel view scale: Even if the Timeline panel is zoomed a long way out, you’ll be able to make frame-accurate trim adjustments in the Program Monitor Trim view.

  1. Open the sequence 12 Trim View.

  2. With the Selection tool (keyboard shortcut V), hold down Option (macOS) or Alt (Windows) and double-click the video edit between the first video clip and the second video clip in the sequence. Holding this modifier key selects just the video edits and leaves the audio tracks untouched.

  3. In the Program Monitor, hover the pointer over the A and B clip images (but don’t click yet).

    As you move the pointer from left to right, you’ll see the tool change from Trim Out (left side) to Roll (center) to Trim In (right).

  4. Drag in between both clips in the Program Monitor to perform a rolling edit trim.

    Note

    Clicking the A or B side will switch which side is being trimmed. Clicking in the center will switch to a rolling edit.

    Adjust the timing until the time display on the lower-right side of the Program Monitor, as an overlay on the B clip image, reads 01:26:59:01.

  5. Press the Down Arrow key three times to jump between edits until you have selected the edit between the third and fourth clips (the cut in the audio track counts as one jump).

    The first shot plays too long and shows the actor beginning to sit down, which is repeated in the next shot.

    When dragging in the Program Monitor to trim, the color of the tool indicates the type of trim you’ll perform. Red indicates a regular trim, and yellow indicates a ripple trim.

    You can quickly change the trim type by holding Command (macOS) or Ctrl (Windows) and clicking one of the images in the Program Monitor. After clicking, you’ll need to move the pointer in order for the color of the tool to update.

  6. Now, Command-click (macOS) or Ctrl-click (Windows) one of the images in the Program Monitor until the trim tool pointer turns yellow. This indicates that you’ve selected the Ripple Trim tool.

  7. Drag to the left on the outgoing clip (on the left side of the Program Monitor) to make the clip shorter.

    Make sure the time display on the left reads 01:54:12:18.

  8. Play the edit by pressing the spacebar. Notice that playback loops over the edit to allow you to review it.

Performing dynamic trimming

Much of the trimming work you will perform will be to tune the rhythm of an edit. In many ways, perfecting the timing of a cut is the point at which the craft of editing becomes the art.

Because playback using the spacebar will loop in Trim mode, it’s easier to get a feel for the timing of an edit. You can also trim using keyboard shortcuts or buttons while the sequence plays back in real time.

  1. Continue working with the sequence 12 Trim View.

  2. Press the Down Arrow key to move to the next video edit point, between the fourth and fifth video clips. Set the trim type to a rolling trim.

    You can stay in Trim mode while switching between edit points.

  3. Press the spacebar to loop playback.

    You’ll see a playback loop lasting a few seconds, showing the shot before the cut (pre-roll) and after the cut (post-roll). This should help you get a feel for the timing of the edit.

    Note

    To adjust the pre-roll and post-roll durations, go to Premiere Pro Preferences and select the Playback category. You can set the duration in seconds. Most editors find a duration of two to five seconds most useful.

  4. Try adjusting the trim using the methods you’ve learned while the playback loops.

    The Trim Forward and Trim Backward buttons at the bottom of Trim mode view work well and can adjust the edit while the clip plays back.

    Now let’s try using the keyboard for more dynamic control. The same J, K, and L keys you use to control playback can also be used to control trimming, as long as the Program Monitor is in Trim mode.

  5. Click Stop or press the spacebar to stop the playback loop.

  6. Press the L key to shuttle the trim to the right.

    Pressing once trims in real time. You can tap the L key multiple times to trim faster.

    If you are in Regular Trim mode and trimming a clip extends to the next clip, the trim will be blocked. If you are in Ripple Trim mode, clips will move to accommodate the new clip duration.

    These clips are quite short, so you’ll reach the end quickly. Let’s refine and trim with a little more precision.

  7. Press the K key to stop trimming.

  8. Hold down the K key and press the J key to shuttle left in slow motion.

    Note

    Timeline clip segment durations update after you press K to stop trimming.

  9. Release both keys to stop the trim.

  10. Exit Trim mode by clicking away from the edit on the Timeline to deselect the edit.

Trimming with the keyboard

Here are some of the most useful keyboard shortcuts to use when trimming. If you have a color-coded keyboard, it’s easier to remember which key is which.

MACOS

WINDOWS

Trim Backward: Option+Left Arrow

Trim Backward: Ctrl+Left Arrow

Trim Backward Many: Option+Shift+Left Arrow

Trim Backward Many: Ctrl+Shift+Left Arrow

Trim Forward: Option+Right Arrow

Trim Forward: Ctrl+Right Arrow

Trim Forward Many: Option+Shift+Right Arrow

Trim Forward Many: Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow

Slide Clip Selection Left Five Frames: Option+Shift+, (comma)

Slide Clip Selection Left Five Frames: Alt+Shift+, (comma)

Slide Clip Selection Left One Frame: Option+, (comma)

Slide Clip Selection Left One Frame: Alt+, (comma)

Slide Clip Selection Right Five Frames: Option+Shift+. (period)

Slide Clip Selection Right Five Frames: Alt+Shift+. (period)

Slide Clip Selection Right One Frame: Option+. (period)

Slide Clip Selection Right One Frame: Alt+. (period)

Slip Clip Selection Left Five Frames: Command+Option+Shift+Left Arrow

Slip Clip Selection Left Five Frames: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Left Arrow

Slip Clip Selection Left One Frame: Command+Option+Left Arrow

Slip Clip Selection Left One Frame: Ctrl+Alt+Left Arrow

Slip Clip Selection Right Five Frames: Command+Option+Shift+Right Arrow

Slip Clip Selection Right Five Frames: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Right Arrow

Slip Clip Selection Right One Frame: Command+Option+Right Arrow

Slip Clip Selection Right One Frame: Ctrl+Alt+Right Arrow

Review questions

1. If you change the playback speed of a clip to 50%, what effect will this have on the clip duration?

2. Which tool allows you to stretch a sequence clip to change its playback speed?

3. What’s the difference between a slide edit and a slip edit?

4. What is the difference between replacing a sequence clip and replacing footage?

Review answers

1. The clip will be twice as long. Reducing a clip’s speed causes the clip to become longer, unless the Speed and Duration parameters are unlinked in the Clip Speed/Duration dialog box or the clip is blocked by another clip.

2. The Rate Stretch tool allows you to adjust playback speed as if you were trimming. This is useful when you need to fill a small extra amount of time in a sequence or shorten a clip just a little.

3. You slide a clip over adjacent clips, retaining the selected clip’s original In and Out points. You slip a clip under adjacent clips (or roll the contents like a conveyor belt), changing the selected clip’s In and Out points.

4. Replacing a clip replaces a single clip in a sequence with a new clip from the Project panel. Replacing footage replaces a clip in the Project panel with a new source clip. Any instance of the clip in any sequence in the project is replaced. In both cases, effects that were applied to the clip that is replaced are maintained.