- Which of these consumer products use nanotechnology?
- Dockers jeans
- Toyota Prius
- Computers and Cell phones
- All of the above
All of the Above use nanotechnology. Dockers “Go” khakis were reported to use protective nanocoatings in 2004; today, several clothing manufacturers use nanocoatings. Sunscreens are probably the largest user of nanoparticles; more than 300 sunscreen products use nanoparticle formulations of titanium oxide or zinc oxide to make their creams, which help make their lotions clear instead of white. Most cars and trucks use nanocomposites in automotive lubricants, exterior paints, engine coatings, seat covers, batteries, capacitors, computer systems, and much more. Computers and other electronic devices have used nanoscale architectures in semiconductors for more than a decade; computers and flat-screen monitors use nanocoatings. These are only a few examples.
- In 2014, approximately how many consumer products used nanotechnologies (according to the Woodrow Wilson project)?
The Emerging Nanotechnologies Project of the Woodrow Wilson Project/Pew Charitable Trusts inventory of consumer products reported to contain or utilize nanotechnology reached 1317 products in March 2011, the last year the consumer products inventory was updated. Based on the trend peline, the site projected that the total would exceed 1800 products by 2013. The real number is undoubtedly much higher, given the very large number of materials, cosmetics, packaging, composites, catalysts, and other categories that have emerged just in the past few years.
- The term “nanotechnology” was first coined by
- Richard Smalley
- Norio Taniguchi
- K. Eric Drexler
- Richard Feynman
Although Eric Drexler has been credited for independently coining and promoting the term nanotechnology in the United States (in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology), the term was actually first coined in 1974 by Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University. Technically, Professor Taniguchi can be credited for being first in the world to originate the term, while Dr. Drexler is credited for introducing the term in the United States.
- This Nobel Prize winning scientist gave a Caltech lecture in 1959 entitled “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom” – setting the scientific community on a course of discovery that gave rise to the field of nanotechnology.
- Richard Smalley
- Carl Sagan
- K. Eric Drexler
- Richard Feynman
Richard Feynman (1918–1988) is credited with sparking the movement to manipulate and control matter at the atomic and molecular scale – the field we now call nanotechnology. He issued a challenge in his speech to a meeting of the American Physical Society at Caltech in December 1959. He shared the Nobel Prize in 1965 for his work on quantum electrodynamics and was one of the first scientists to conceptualize quantum computers. As part of his presentation, he offered two $1000 prizes: one for building a tiny motor (which was achieved using conventional technology not nanotech) and the other, to reproduce information from a book page on a surface at 1/25 000 the original scale. The second prize was won in 1985 by a Stanford graduate student who reduced the first paragraph from A Tale of Two Cities.
- The scanning tunneling microscope (SEM) capable of imaging the nanoscale was invented in
- The United States
It is wonderfully ironic that the scanning tunneling microscope was invented in Switzerland, home of precision instruments and clocks. The scanning tunneling microscope was invented in 1981 at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, who shared the Nobel Prize in 1986 for their invention. The STM can image individual atoms on a metal or semiconductor surface by scanning the tip of a needle over the surface. This invention opened the entire field of nanotechnology by using electron beams to view structures and processes at the nanoscale, which could not be viewed using optical microscopes. Dr. Binnig is still on the research staff at the Zurich laboratory; Dr. Rohrer retired from IBM in 1997.
- What was the first recognizable image created by manipulating individual atoms?
- The IBM logo
- A Mickey Mouse cartoon from 1929
- The yin and yang symbol
- A yellow “happy face”
On November 11,1989, Donald Eigler became the first to manipulate individual atoms with nanoscale precision, a truly historic achievement in the history of physics and nanoinnovation. Using a low-temperature, high-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope that he built, he positioned 35 xenon atoms to spell the letters “IBM” – the world's smallest logo. Dr. Eigler is a physicist and IBM Fellow, and corecipient of the Kavli Prize, the highest scientific award in nanoscience.
- The first US president to have his image rendered at the nanoscale is
- George W. Bush
- William Clinton
- Barack Obama
- Ronald Reagan
- None of the above
The image of President Barack Obama on the cover of this book is the first image of a US president to be rendered at the nanoscale – although technically, President Obama was still a candidate in 2008 when the image was created. Anastasios John Hart at the University of Michigan used nanolithography to create the image by growing carbon nanotubes on a semiconductor substrate, using a masking process similar to how semiconductor chips are made. Each nanoscale image is comprised of 150 million carbon nanotubes. The nanoimage was adapted from a graphic by artist Shepherd Ferry based on a photo taken at the National Press Club in 2006 by AP photographer Mannie Garcia. These images and a detailed explanation of the process can be found at www.nanobama.com.
- Nanoparticles of gold (below 100 nm) are what color?
- Red or purple
Particles of gold appear red at 100 nm or less, and can also exhibit other colors such as green or purple, depending on the size that determines the wavelength of light that is reflected to the viewer. This is an excellent example of how materials exhibit novel properties at the nanoscale that are different from their macro properties. Historically, nanobits of gold were used in stained glass windows to create vibrant red images. Nanobits of colloidal gold suspended in a fluid such as water may appear red or purple. Colloidal gold and silver in the Lycurgus Cup (fourth century) causes a red/green color-shifting effect (the glass is green when viewed normally, but turns red when a light such as a candle is shone through the glass). The Lycurgus Cup can be seen in the British Museum in London.
- Nanoparticles of iron oxide – called “nanorust” – can be used to
- remove bacteria from washing machines
- desalinize seawater
- remove toxic arsenic from drinking water
- kill cockroaches
Iron oxide – more commonly known as “rust” – has long been known to bind particles of arsenic, which is a heavy metal that contaminates drinking water in many regions of the world – most notably in Bangladesh where as much as 80% of all groundwater may be tainted. Researchers at Rice University have discovered that nanoparticles of iron oxide, known as “nanorust,” can bind with arsenic in drinking water, which can then be removed using an ordinary magnet. The team, led by Prof. Vickie Colvin, is part of the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology (CBEN) at Rice.
- Buckyballs and nanotubes are forms of
- semiconductor circuits
Buckyballs are a nickname for “buckminster fullerenes,” which are a form of carbon molecule comprised of 60 carbon atoms arranged in what looks like a soccer ball or geodesic sphere. Buckyballs were discovered by the late Richard Smalley, a professor at Rice University who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery in 1985. The molecule was named after famed architect Buckminster Fuller, who used geodesic shapes in his designs.
- Which country holds the most nanotechnology patents?
- South Korea
- The United States
The United States is in the leading patent position with over 40% of all applications, followed by Japan (17%) and Germany (10%) (Source: OECD, 2009). The total number of US patents that include “nano” in the title and/or text exceeds 24 000 – this excludes nanotechnology patents that do not include the term “nano,” which includes patents that may involve quantum dots, fullerenes, biomarkers, and other nanoscale inventions. A record 4400 of these “nano” patents were granted in 2009, a year to year increase of more than 40% from 2008. At the end of 2009, there were more than 49 000 US patents pending that referenced nano or nanotube. Alton Parrish, who tracks these statistics on his Nano Patents and Innovations blog, estimates that there may be more than 73 000 nanotechnology patents at year-end 2009 (Source: Nano Patents and Innovations, December 29, 2009).
- Which country is the nanotechnology research leader in Latin America?
Brazil, which has Latin America's largest economy, was the first nation in Latin America to provide public funding for nanotechnology (in 2000) and by most metrics has the largest nanotechnology research infrastructure. Mexico and Argentina, which are generally ranked second and third in nanotechnology in Latin America, also benefited from providing early public funding to develop their nanotechnology infrastructures.
- Which of these atoms are smaller than 1 nm in diameter?
- All atoms are >1 nm
- All atoms are <1 nm
Atoms range in diameter from about 0.1 to 0.3 nm, which means that all atoms are <1 nm in diameter. As you add protons, neutrons, and electrons to an atom, the atom increases in size, but as more particles are added, the force holding the electrons also increases, which condenses the atom and keeps even the largest atoms under 1 nm. The simplest, smallest atom is hydrogen, comprised of one proton and one electron. Measuring the “radius” of an atom is complicated by the fact that electrons “orbit” the nucleus, so the atom is not really “solid.” Electrons often behave more like waves than particles, and form a “cloud” around the nucleus.
- Which of the following has been created by scientists in nanotech laboratories?
- A nanoscale box with a lid, made of synthetic DNA
- A paper battery that you can fold or cut
- A hollow gold nanosphere capable of delivering cancer fighting drugs
- Carbon sheets one atom thick
- All of the above
All of these very interesting technical achievements have been demonstrated in research laboratories, by extraordinary teams of nanoinnovators. DNA origami – the building of structures using synthetic DNA molecules – has progressed to the point that a box with “locks” has been created. Paper batteries have been created by growing carbon nanotubes on a substrate of silicon, peeling off the carbon sheet, and using it to create a battery that you can cut, fold, and bend, while retaining the battery's properties. In several medical laboratories, biomedical researchers have demonstrated that hollow gold nanospheres can either be delivered to tumor sites and heated to kill just the tumors or used as nanocarriers to deliver drugs to disease sites. Carbon sheets one atom thick – called graphene or graphane – also exist and are moving from research to commercialization.
- Does Europe spend more or less than the United States on nanotechnology research?
- Approximately the same
Europe spends approximately the same money on nanotechnology research, as the United States.
- Which of the following is an example of nanoinnovation?
- High-performance baseball bats and golf clubs
- Flexible thin-film solar cells
- Digestible computers for tracking pills
- Cell phones that bend and twist like plastic
- All of the above
These nanoinnovations reveal the broad spectrum of technologies and applications that are already being developed and commercialized. Baseball bats and golf clubs already benefit from integrated nanoparticles. Flexible thin-film solar cells still have relatively low efficiency levels, but experimental nano-solar prototypes are increasing these levels to more commercial performance levels. Proteus Biomedical's digestible computer chip is in clinical trials. Nokia's concept phones use nanotechnology to bend and twist. These are just a few examples.
- Which of the following are nanoscale (<100 nm in diameter)?
- West Nile Virus
- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
- Human hair
- Escherichia coli bacteria
The West Nile Virus is a type of Flavivirus, ranging from 40 to 60 nm. Viruses in general range from 20 to 200 nm. White blood cells are ∼10 000 nm, and red blood cells are about 7000 nm. Most bacteria range from 1000 to 10 000 nm. A human hair can vary in thickness, from 50 000 to 100 000 nm in diameter.
- The world's largest carbon nanotube manufacturing facility is located in which country?
- The United States
CNano Technology, headquartered in Santa Clara, California, operates a 500 metric ton carbon nanotube production facility, which is located in China. Showa Denko K.K. (SDK) in Japan operates a 400 tonne/year nanotube plant, primarily focused on resin composite applications. The Belgian company Nanocyl operates a 460 metric ton plant which is the second largest.
- Which of the following companies holds the most nanotech patents?
- Nantero, Inc.
IBM, which holds more patents than any United States-based company, holds more than 200 patents, including an early fundamental patent on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Of the 1180 companies that own nanotechnology patents in the United States, half of them are held by just 95 entities.1)
- Which products in Europe are required to identify nanosized ingredients with the word “nano” in brackets on their labels?
- Food products sold in supermarkets
- All consumer products
In November 2009, the European Union adopted new product labeling rules that require cosmetics sold in Europe to include the word “nano” in brackets after any ingredient <100 nm in size. The rules went into effect in 2013.