When the Macintosh was young, Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini wrote a regular column in Apple's developer magazine on UI design. In his column, people wrote in with lots of interesting UI design problems, which he discussed. These columns continue to this day on his Web site (http://www.asktog.com). They've also been collected and embellished in a couple of great books like Tog on Software Design (Addison-Wesley, 1995), which is a lot of fun and a great introduction to UI design, and Tog on Interface (Addison-Wesley, 1992).
Tog invented the concept of the mile-high menu bar to explain why the menu bar on the Macintosh, which is always glued to the top of the physical screen, is so much easier to use than menu bars on Windows, which appear inside each application window. When you want to point to the File menu on Windows, you have a target about half an inch wide and a quarter of an inch high to acquire. (The term "acquiring a target" comes from gunnery.) You must move and position the mouse rather precisely in both the vertical and the horizontal dimensions. See Figure 10-1. (While I was preparing this screen shot, Rocky, the Office Assistant, was trying to bust loose. Please don't let that distract you. He has been apprehended and returned to his rightful place scratching himself in the corner of the screen.)
|On Windows computers, each window has its own menu bar. To acquire the "File" menu, for example, you have a target that is about 30 × 15 pixels in size.|
But on a Macintosh, you can slam the mouse up to the top of the screen without regard to how high you slam it, and it will stop at the physical edge of the screen—the correct vertical position for using the menu. Effectively, you have a target that is still half an inch wide, but a mile high. Now you only need to worry about positioning the cursor horizontally, not vertically, so the task of clicking on a menu item is that much easier.
Based on this principle, Tog has a pop quiz: what are the five spots on the screen that are easiest to acquire (point to) with the mouse? The answer: all four corners of the screen (where you can literally slam the mouse in one fell swoop without any pointing at all), plus the current position of the mouse, because it's already there.
The principle of the mile-high menu bar is fairly well known. However, it must not be entirely obvious because the Windows 95 team missed the point completely with the
Start push-button, which sits almost (but not exactly) in the bottom left corner of the screen. In fact, it's about two pixels away from the bottom and two pixels from the left of the screen. So, for the sake of a couple of pixels, Tog writes, Microsoft literally "snatches defeat from the jaws of victory" and makes it that much harder to acquire the
Start button. It could have been a mile square, absolutely trivial to hit with the mouse. For some reason, I don't know why, it's not. Even five years later, after many major releases of Windows, nobody has bothered to fix the Start button to make it easier to hit.
In the previous chapter, we talked about how users hate reading and will avoid it unless they absolutely cannot accomplish their task. Similarly:
Users can't control the mouse very well.
I don't mean this literally. What I mean is, you should design your program so that it does not require a tremendous amount of mouse-agility to use correctly. The top six reasons for this are:
- Some people use suboptimal pointing devices, such as trackballs, touchpads, and the little red thingy on a ThinkPad, all of which are harder to control than standard mice.
- Sometimes people use mice under bad conditions: on a crowded desk; with a dirty trackball that makes the mouse skip; or with a mouse that is just a five-dollar clone and doesn't track properly.
- Some people are new to computers and have not yet developed the motor skills to use mice accurately.
- Some people will literally never have the motor skills to use mice precisely. They may be very young or very old; they may have arthritis, tremors, carpal tunnel syndrome; or they may suffer from any number of disabilities.
- Many people find that it is extremely difficult to double-click without moving the mouse slightly. As a result, they often drag things around on their screen when they mean to launch applications. You can often spot these people by their messy desktops because half the time they try to launch something, they wind up moving it instead.
- Even in the best of situations, using the mouse a lot feels slow to people. If you force people to perform a multistep operation using the mouse, they may feel like they are being stalled, which in turn makes the UI feel unresponsive. This, as you should know by know, makes people unhappy.
In ye olden days, when I worked on Excel, laptops didn't come with pointing devices built in, so Microsoft made a clip-on trackball that clipped to the side of the keyboard. A normal mouse is controlled with the wrist and most of the fingers. This is much like writing, and you probably developed very accurate motor skills for writing in elementary school. But a trackball is controlled entirely with the thumb. As a result, it's much harder to control a trackball to the same degree of accuracy as a mouse. Most people find that they can control a mouse to within one or two pixels but can only control a trackball to within three or four pixels. On the Excel design team, I always urged people to try out their new UIs with the trackball instead of only with a mouse, to see how it would feel to people who are not able to move the mouse exactly where they want it.
One of the great UI crimes against humanity is the dropdown listbox, shown closed and then open in Figure 10-3.
Think about how many detailed mouse clicks it will take to choose, say, Wingdings. First, you must click on the down arrow to make the list appear. Then, using the scroll bar, you must carefully scroll until Wingdings appears in view. Many of these dropdowns are carelessly designed to show only two or three items at a time, so this scrolling is none too easy, especially if you have a lot of fonts. It involves either carefully dragging the position indicator (with such a small range of movement, it's probably unlikely that this will work); or clicking repeatedly on the second down arrow; or trying to click in the area between the thumb and the down arrow—which will eventually stop working when the thumb gets low enough, annoying you even further. Finally, if you do manage to get Wingdings into view, you have to click on it. If you miss, you get to start all over again. Now multiply this process by ten if, say, you want to use a fancy font for the first letter in each of your chapters. Then you're really unhappy.
|The dropdown listbox in its normal state and expanded.|
The poxy dropdown listbox is even more annoying because there's such an easy solution: just make the dropdown part high enough to show all of the options at once. Ninety percent of the combo boxes out there don't even use all the available space to drop down, which is a sin. If there is not enough room between the main edit box and the bottom of the screen, the dropdown should grow up until it fits all the items, even if it has to go all the way from the top of the physical screen to the bottom. And then, if there are still more items than there's room for, it should scroll automatically as the mouse approaches the edge rather than requiring the poor user to mess with a teensy weensy scrollbar.
Furthermore, don't make me click on the little tiny arrow to the right of the edit box before you pop up the dropdown—let me click anywhere on the edit box! This expands the click target about tenfold and makes it that much easier to acquire the target with the mouse pointer.
Let's look at another problem with mousing: edit boxes. You may have noticed that almost every edit box on the Macintosh uses a really fat, bold font called Chicago, which looks kind of ugly and distresses graphic designers to no end. Graphic designers (unlike UI designers) have been taught that thin, variable spaced fonts are more gracious, look better, and are easier to read. All this is true. But graphic designers learned their skills on paper, not on the screen. When you need to edit text, monospaced text (that is, text in which every letter is the same width) has a major advantage over variable spaced fonts: it's easier to see and select narrow letters like 'l' and 'i'. I learned this lesson after watching a sixty-year-old man in a usability test painfully trying to edit the name of his street, which was something like Fillmore Street. We were using 8-point Arial font, so the edit box looked like Figure 10-4.
|When you use a font like 8-point Arial or the Windows default MS Sans Serif, lowercase 'L's are only one pixel wide.|
Notice that the 'I' and the 'L's are literally one pixel wide. The difference between a lowercase 'I' and a lowercase 'L' is literally one pixel. (Similarly, it is almost impossible to see the difference between 'RN' and 'M' in lowercase, so this edit box might actually say Fillrnore.)
There are very few people who would notice if they mistyped
Fillrnore, and even if they did, they would have a heck of a time trying to use the mouse to select the offending letter and correct it. In fact, they would even have a hard time using the blinking cursor, which is two pixels wide, to select a single letter. Look at Figure 10-5 to see how much easier it would have been if we had used a fat font (shown here as Courier Bold).
OK, so it takes up more space and doesn't look as cool to your graphic designers. Deal with it! It's much easier to use. It even feels better, because as the user types, they get sharp, clear text. And it's so much easier to edit when you have a typo.
|A larger, monospaced, bold font like Courier is a lot easier to edit.|
Here's a common programmer thought pattern: there are only three numbers: 0, 1, and n. If n is allowed, all n's are equally likely. This thought pattern comes from the old coding convention (probably smart) that you shouldn't have any numeric constants in your code except for 0 and 1. (Constants other than 0 and 1 are referred to as "magic numbers." I don't even want to get into the psychology of that.)
For example, programmers tend to think that if your program allows you to open multiple documents, it must allow you to open infinite documents (as memory allows), or at least 232, the only magic number programmers concede. A programmer would tend to look with disdain on a program that limited you to twenty open documents. "Twenty?! Why twenty? It's not even a power of two!"
Another implication of all n's are equally likely is that programmers tend to think that if users are allowed to resize and move windows, they should have complete flexibility over where these windows go, right down to the last pixel. After all, positioning a window two pixels from the top of the screen is "equally likely" as positioning a window exactly at the top of the screen.
But it's not true. As it turns out, it's not equally likely. There are many good reasons why you might want a window exactly at the top of the screen (it maximizes screen real estate), but there really aren't any reasons to leave two pixels between the top of the screen and the top of the window. So, in reality, 0 is much more likely than 2.
The programmers over at Nullsoft, creators of WinAmp, managed to somehow avoid the programmer-think that has imprisoned the rest of us for a decade. WinAmp has a great feature. When you start to drag the window near the edge of the screen (coming within a few pixels), it automatically snaps to the edge of the screen perfectly, which is probably exactly what you wanted since 0 is so much more likely than 2.
The Juno main window has a similar feature: it's the only application I've ever seen that is "locked in a box" on the screen and cannot be dragged beyond the edge. This is a great idea. What are the chances that you really wanted your application to be hanging halfway off the screen? You lose a little bit of flexibility, but in exchange, you get a user interface that recognizes that precisely controlling the mouse is hard, so why should you have to? This innovation (which every program could use) eases the burden of window management in an intelligent way.
Look closely at your program's user interface and give us all a break. Pretend that we are gorillas or maybe smart orangutans and that we have trouble with the mouse. Then, design your interface so that it's good enough to gesture with the mouse instead of controlling it precisely like a surgeon's scalpel, and we'll be much more productive.