Chapter 5 Presentation Skills – Advanced Communication Skills Laboratory Manual

5

Presentation Skills

INTRODUCTION

Making technical presentations will be a part of your career all throughout. Therefore, you ought to pay special attention towards honing effective presentation skills. A technical presentation is a developed, organized and well-prepared presentation that makes use of suitable presentation aids. Presentations are of three kinds, depending on the time given for preparation—impromptu, extemporaneous and seminar presentations. Impromptu presentations are those where the time given for preparation is minimal. Extemporaneous presentations are the ones where the time given for preparation is adequate. After adequate preparation, you can outline the speech and prepare lecture notes and presentation aids, practise the presentation and then deliver the presentation with ease. Seminar presentations are those where sufficient time is given to write a research article that can be read out to the audience using suitable presentation aids. Presentation skills include skills of: planning, preparing, practising and presenting.

PLANNING

Planning involves complete and comprehensive understanding of a few vital points. The first and foremost is adequate information and understanding about the audience for the presentation. The speaker should try to find out the following about the audience:

  • Educational background
  • Occupational background
  • Linguistic and cultural background
  • Age group
  • Gender distribution
  • Size

Based on these facts, the speaker can gauge their basic attitude and their knowledge of the subject. It is also necessary to comprehend the strengths and weaknesses of the audience, so that the speaker can address their strengths and attempt to ignore their weaknesses. Depending on the context, the speaker can manipulate the situation. The speaker should also keep in mind the audience’s ability to listen and grasp the matter, lest after the entire presentation, he should realize that the presentation was futile. Last, but very important, is their number, so that the speaker can be prepared in many ways, like readying an adequate number of copies beforehand of handouts or any other material the speaker would like distribute amongst the audience. After spending some time in exploring the audience, you need to attempt to know how much the audience knows about you, and their knowledge of the subject of your presentation.

After a complete understanding of the audience, it is necessary to know the purpose of the audience in attending that presentation. There are generally three major purposes for which a listener listens to a presentation. But it can be a combination of any two or more purposes for which an audience may attend a presentation. The three purposes are:

  1. To seek information
  2. To make a decision after listening to the presentation
  3. To get entertained

The speaker also has to consider his purpose of presentation. The purposes would generally be providing information, persuading the audience regarding something and entertaining the audience. The speaker should build the strategy to match both his purpose and that of the audience as closely as he can. If the speaker intends to satisfy the first purpose, he has to make the audience understand the important aspects of the subject along with the fundamentals of the subject. Finally, he should see to it that the audience gets an overall understanding of the matter of presentation. If the presentation is intended to assist decision-making, the speaker has to present information necessary for the audience to take a decision. Along with the information, he should also suggest the best possible decisions for the audience. And if the speaker is supposed to entertain the audience, he should use healthy and non-controversial humour.

Another vital aspect of preparation is awareness about the time given for presentation and the expectations of the organizers. The speaker is supposed to know the time duration given to him much before he starts his preparation, and plan accordingly.

PREPARING

Once the speaker has analysed the audience, their purpose of attending the presentation and his purpose of presentation, he should begin to prepare for the presentation. If it is an impromptu presentation, there isn’t enough time available to access any knowledge sources. The speaker should then depend on his memory alone. Step One is that the speaker should exercise his memory to gather all ideas concerned with the topic of presentation. Step Two is that he should organize the points in a logical order. If it is extemporaneous, it is always advisable to begin the preparation by adequate reading and gathering information regarding the topic. It is necessary to visit all possible knowledge sources like libraries, Internet or even people who are associated with the concerned field of knowledge. If it is a seminar presentation, the speaker should do thorough research. He should visit all possible knowledge sources, collect the related literature, study what has happened in the field, conduct research on his own, record all his findings, and then begin to organize an article.

After the speaker gathers the concerned information, it is time to organize the presentation. Such organization of the presentation material not only removes confusion, but also helps the audience in understanding the matter easily and effectively. This also helps to retain ideas better during the pressure of message presentation and holds the attention of the audience. Logical linking among all the major ideas and proper coherence of the content will lead to a clear presentation. This planning or organizing of the matter is different for each purpose.

Any kind of presentation can basically be divided into three important parts for the convenience of the speaker and the listener. They are: introduction, body and conclusion. The significant features of the introduction are that it should be brief, effective, and should inform about what is going to be presented. Thus, the speaker may start with a punch line, an anecdote, a quotation, a reference to a recent event, etc.

The main body of the presentation should proceed with logically arranged ideas. This covers almost all the points the speaker intends to discuss. It has to be logically ordered, clear, and brief. The speaker is expected to use suitable presentation aids to make the presentation more meaningful, clear and impressive. The presentation aids may be PowerPoint slides, handouts, OHP slides, flip charts, models, charts, or real objects if it is possible to get them, such as any tool, specimens or microscopic slides that can be projected. Using visual aids has five important advantages:

  • You do not have to worry about what you are going to say. Use effective titles, which properly capture the main message of the visual aid.
  • Visual aids allow you to move around the room. Movement helps you to relax and adds energy to your presentation. It also allows the listeners to follow you and pay closer attention to you.
  • You can have good eye contact with your audience. You can look at your audience all the time, except when you look briefly at your visual aid. This will help them see your message as well as hear your message.
  • Your audience feels comfortable knowing your planned track. Well-designed visual aids show that you are well-prepared and have a good plan.
  • Selection of apt visual aids is a critical task that needs some thought. Selecting the right medium and preparing an effective aid is detailed in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1

Table 5.2 Visuals and Details

ORGANIZING

The body of the presentation may be done in any of the following pattern or a combination of more than one of them:

  • Chronological order
  • Spatial order
  • Cause-effect pattern
  • Topical pattern.

Chronological pattern is useful while organizing the subject that has time as an important factor. Thus, the sub-headings of this presentation will move along the timeline. E.g., narrating events, historical, social, political, cultural, scientific in nature.

Spatial pattern is used while dealing with the description of a person, place, thing or a situation. While describing a scene, a location or a geographical location, this pattern is useful. The presentation should follow a logical order that best describes whatever the speaker intends to describe.

Cause-effect pattern is generally used while presenting a matter that deals with problems, issues, debatable topics and others. You can speak about causes, intensity, present situation and possible solutions. The speaker can arrange them in an order that best suits the context.

Topical pattern is used in most presentations which do not come under any of the above categories. The pattern follows a logical and thematic order. Depending on the context, the speaker may choose to present the most familiar and obvious idea and then lead the audience to more difficult and complex ideas, or vice versa.

As the presentation approaches the conclusion stage, the speaker is supposed to ensure the audience could follow him properly. For this, he should sum up his presentation. The conclusion should also be as impressive as the introduction. Thus, you should use the same techniques to close it effectively.

Organizing an Informative Presentation

An informative presentation is one that demands logical organization of matter. The ultimate aim is to make the listener retain the information the speaker is providing. The speaker is advised to conduct an activity, like brainstorming, or a question-answer session to gauge the audience’s level of understanding. You should proceed keeping in mind the audience’s level of understanding and knowledge of the subject matter. The speaker should arouse interest in the information and present a bird’s eye view of the major points in the introduction.

While presenting the body of the presentation, use of non-verbal items like tables, graphs, pie charts, bar diagrams and flow charts is particularly useful. Non-verbal items not only reduce your burden of remembering too many things, but they also make the presentation effective. The four major advantages of using a non-verbal item are: 1. You can represent huge data in one diagram, 2. more clear than written text, 3. more effective as it is visual, 4. both comparing and contrasting are possible at one go.

The conclusion should be made interesting by adding one important application line or specific information along with representing the entire presentation at a go.

Organizing a Persuasive Presentation

A persuasive presentation is one that has a specific expectation from the audience. As a speaker, you might want your audience to get convinced to believe, take a decision, to act accordingly, to advise somebody in turn, etc. For this, you must study the audience attitude closely, study their existing approach and understanding of the matter. Since it is essential to visualize the outcome, do a pilot presentation for a trusted person who can give you valid feedback. The introduction should motivate them enough and make them ready for the rest of the presentation. Then present a valid and strong argument along with examples, relevant statistics, expert testimony and test cases that would be sufficient to convince the audience. Then conclude the presentation by taking audience’s feedback. The conclusion should leave them in a favourable state of mind to the expected action of the speaker.

Organizing an Entertaining Presentation

An entertaining presentation is the one that has to be carefully organized. The speaker has to consider the cultural, political, national and linguistic background of the audience, as well as their gender distribution and age group. The speaker should organize his presentation in a way that would not hurt any one in the audience.

The next step is to draft the presentation. One cannot write the entire matter and go on reading it before of the audience. The speaker has to decide the type of presentation. If he is making a seminar presentation, he is supposed to write the essay following contemporary writing rules. If he is making an extemporaneous presentation, he has to prepare lecture notes on note cards. They have to be carefully drafted, i.e., each card has to deal with one major idea in simple and direct language, and it should be complete, brief and clear. If he can get the electronic equipment and is ready to make a PowerPoint presentation, he can proceed with it. The slides should be brief, clear and to the point. Long drafts, confusing and long sentences take away the attention and enthusiasm of the audience. If he wants to can make presentations only with the help of a board, it is advisable to prepare teaching cards. While preparing these cards, he should focus on easily readable, widely spaced writing, with the key words highlighted and the ideas numbered. After preparing all the cards, the time required to finish each card should be calculated, and the cards tied properly.

After the speaker drafts the presentation, he should be able to understand which kind of visual aids are suitable for an effective presentation. Visual aids should be relevant, simple and bold. If the speaker would like to use handouts, the number of people in the audience should be taken into consideration. As the speaker, make sure that you study the visual aid very well, so that you do not fumble while answering any question regarding it.

PRACTISING

After the drafting is over, it is advisable to practise. Rehearsing helps to check the speed and time allotment. It gives great clarity and confidence to the speaker, and propels him to perform better. Every individual experiences stage-fear and nervousness while making a presentation. Rehearsing helps the speaker reduce this stage-fear and nervousness. You can rehearse in front of friends/people who can understand the content of the presentation.

To conquer stage-fright, you should know the following facts about it:

  • Some amount of stage-fright is helpful.
  • Many professional speakers never completely lose all their stage-fright.
  • One of the main reasons for stage-fright is that one is not accustomed to speaking in public.
  • Some symptoms like mental blocks, trembling arms, excessive sweating and lack of fluency are usual among beginners.
  • To gain confidence, watch successful presentations of other speakers.
  • Thorough preparation will help you conquer stage-fright.
  • Simple warm-up exercises, rotating your arms and moving your facial muscles will help you speak naturally with ease.
  • Including carbohydrates in the meal that you take before the presentation, and having bananas and chocolates will help you.
  • Before beginning your presentation, take three deep breaths of air.
  • Telling yourself things like ‘I will make a successful presentation’ and ‘I am confident about myself’ will help.
PRESENTATION

While getting ready to make a presentation, the speaker should be aware of the non-verbal dimensions of a presentation. Understanding the importance of non-verbal dimensions is necessary to comprehend the speaker’s attitude towards the audience, confidence in himself and confidence in the audience. Non-verbal cues include eye contact with the audience, posture, movement on the stage, usage of hands, facial expressions and voice characters. Though a lot can be written about non-verbal communication, limitations of space prevent us from discussing everything here. The speaker should maintain eye contact equally with everyone in the audience - this holds the attention of the audience and also helps the speaker understand the attitude of the audience. Standing straight and distributing the weight on both legs is recommended, since, leaning on one leg or leaning on a table conveys a negative impression. Free usage of hands indicates self-confidence and is, therefore, advisable. Pleasant and composed facial expressions of the speaker make the audience listen to the presentation comfortably and grasp the ideas effectively.

Voice qualities are also very important in making a presentation effective. Too fast or too slow pace of speaking will have a negative effect. The average speed is 150 words per minute. The voice pitch expresses a person’s emotional state of mind. High pitch indicates excitement and nervousness. A low pitch indicates self-control. While maintaining a moderate volume is suggested, volume should be decided looking at the size of the audience and the physical surroundings. Audibility is the crux of the presentation. Intelligible speaking is given importance to in any given context. So following the language rules of word-stress and intonation is necessary. If the speaker’s pronunciation is intelligible, clarity of articulation is ensured.

The speaker should avoid using vocal segregates like ‘…er…um…’, as they indicate a lack of confidence and preparation. Do follow the gesture rules indicated in Chapter 2.

Proxemics, i.e., usage of the physical space around the speaker is also very important, and is explained in Table 5.3.

 

Table 5.3

18m: Intimate distance
18m–4ft: Personal distance
4–12ft: Social distance
12–25 ft: Public distance

Personal appearance is very important for making a first and impressive impact on the audience. This includes clothes, hair, jewellery, cosmetics, etc. The speaker should match his appearance to the occasion, and be clean, well-dressed, and presentable.

On the day of the presentation, the speaker should reach the venue well in advance and study the physical surroundings. Check the presentation aids and the arrangements well in advance. Familiarize yourself with the place and move around a little in the room. Then start your presentation. While making the presentation, the speaker has to remember that the attention span of the audience is limited. He should keep track of the audience’s attention throughout. Whenever he observes any deviation, he should act immediately to bring it back with attention-gaining devices like revealing a surprising fact, showing a visual, asking a question and trying to establish a personal rapport with the audience.

Presenting of an Informative Presentation

While making an informative presentation, the speaker should, of course, follow all the above prescribed steps and suggestions. Table 5.4 provides a list of do’s and don’ts.

 

Table 5.4

Do’s Don’ts
a. Do your research thoroughly. a. Assume anything without researching.
b. Collect as much data as much as you can. b. Leave any stone unturned in collecting the data.
c. Organize the data in an appropriate order. c. Confuse the audience with inappropriate order of ideas.
d. Prepare effective, appropriate, and clearly visible visuals and keep them in order. d. Present huge data in verbal form, convert them into non-verbal items and present them as visuals.
e. Ensure that the visuals are properly visible to all the audience. e. Block the view of the visuals.
f. Introduce the presentation content to the audience. f. Give complete information in the introduction.
g. Be careful about non-verbal communication, and do not put on an act. g. Be careless about non-verbal communication.
h. Make all efforts to retain audience’s attention. h. Ignore the audience’s distraction.

Presenting a Persuasive Presentation

While making an effective, persuasive presentation, you need to follow the above-mentioned methods and suggestions, and you can use the do’s and don’ts mentioned in Table 5.5.

 

Table 5.5

Do’s Don’ts
a. Do your research thoroughly. a. Assume anything without researching.
b. Collect all necessary support documents, data, professional’s views as much as you can. b. Leave any stone unturned in collecting the data.
c. Organize the data in an appropriate order. c. Confuse the audience with an inappropriate order of ideas.
d. Prepare effective, appropriate, and clearly visible visuals with relevant data and examples and keep them in an order. d. Present huge data in verbal form, convert them into nonverbal items and present them as visuals.
e. Arrange the visuals properly that ensures the visibility to all the audience. e. Block the view of the visuals.
f. Give an introduction that informs the audience about the presentation content. f. Give complete information in the introduction.
g. Wear polite and pleasant expression, and do not put on an act. g. Be rude or aggressive, in your body language.
h. Study the audience’s non-verbal cues to understand whether they are getting convinced or not. h. Go on making your presentation irrespective of the audience’s reaction.
i. Make all efforts to retain the audience’s attention. i. Ignore the audience’s distraction.
j. Be persuasive throughout the presentation. j. Argue or debate with any one in the audience to make them believe you.

Presenting an Entertaining Presentation

While making an entertaining presentation, the speaker should, of course, follow all the above-prescribed steps and suggestions. Table 5.6 is a list of do’s and don’ts:

 

Table 5.6

Do’s Don’ts
a. Do your research thoroughly. a. Assume anything without researching.
b. Collect as much data as you can. b. Leave any stone unturned in collecting the data.
c. Organize the data in an appropriate order. c. Confuse the audience with inappropriate order of ideas.
d. Prepare suitable, clearly visible visuals and keep them in an order. d. Present inappropriate visuals.
e. Arrange the visuals properly and ensure its visibility to all the audience. e. Block the view of the visuals.
f. Keep the background of audience in mind, while being humorous. f. Attempt humour that hurts anyone in the audience.
g. Be careful about non-verbal communication, do not put on an act. g. Be careless about non-verbal communication.
h. Make sure that the audience is getting entertained. h. Ignore the audience’s reaction to your presentation.

After the presentation is complete, you will have to face question-answer sessions. This is a testing time if the speaker is not prepared or is a novice. Here are a few tips to follow:

  • Do not be in a hurry to answer. Listen to the complete question and take a moment to frame your answer. Do not answer without adequate proof. Do not take too much time to think. This will divert the attention of the audience.
  • If anyone in the audience appreciates your presentation, receive it with grace.
  • If any one in the audience decides to criticize you deliberately without logic, do not argue, smile it away.
  • If any one in the audience is reacting satisfactorily to your answer, do not take a lot of time to convince him, as it can bore others and you might lose the attention of the audience.
  • Even if one individual from the audience asks a question, maintain eye-contact with all the members of the audience. Look into the individual’s eyes when he is asking a question.
  • Be pleasant throughout.
  • If you are supposed to answer more than one question, do carry pen and paper. Write the questions down, and answer them one after the other carefully.
  • Do take audience feedback either in writing by providing a sheet of paper, or orally through questions and answers.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION

Fear

When a person stands before a huge gathering of people who are eager to listen to him, he can obviously become nervous. This nervousness plays a positive role as long as it makes the speaker more attentive. But once it begins to take a toll on him, it spoils the entire presentation.

Lack of Preparation

It is always advisable that the speaker plan everything in advance. It includes the preparation related to the topic. Keeping a small piece of paper handy and jotting down ideas is better than relying on one’s memory. Preparation also includes preparing oneself for unpredictable problems with the sound system, visual clips, slides and projector. If the speaker fails to prepare for this, his presentation might be a failure, due to a power cut or some other technical problem. Lack of preparation would make the presentation less impressive.

Unable to Control One’s Ideas

Some speakers beat around the bush and never talk about the main idea. They give elaborate examples, and explain endlessly. They get stuck with a trivial point/thing. Some speakers fail to present their ideas in a sequence. Deviation from the main topic plays a key role in the outcome of the speech.

An effective presentation is one that leaves the content in the minds of the audience. The speaker can ensure this by taking the feedback of the audience through either question-answer method, or by collecting it in a hand out. Though we could not give all the details of making an effective presentation, we have tried to give as much information as necessary to make an effective presentation.

EXAMPLE

Biomass and Sustainability: Why Biofuels Can’t Replace Oil

Earth Talk, a feature in E Magazine, recently answered a reader query about the benefits of biomass as an energy source. Earth Talk responded with some good information that included the following points.

  • Biomass is natural material—mostly trees, grasses, forestry waste and agricultural waste—that can be burned as a source of heat (for warmth and cooking meals) and for generating electricity. In the US, biomass accounts for a little less than 1% of the electricity supply.
  • Firewood is a classic example of biomass, but biomass is finding more exotic uses too, for instance, as a feedstock for ethanol and biodiesel.
  • Biomass is a renewable energy source that is carbon-neutral since the CO2 released by burning or otherwise consuming it is recaptured by next year’s crop.

All that sounds great, right? Yes, but the Earth Talk piece mentions one potential problem with biomass to be considered as sustainable energy source: biomass cannot be used faster than it grows back. That’s a great point. Violating this rule is why so many villages in Africa have an ever-increasing ‘barren ring’ around them, as villagers venture further and further in their unsustainable quest to continue gathering more fuel wood than nature can grow back. But there are two other big flies in the biomass ointment that the Earth Talk piece overlooks that make the sustainability of biomass at a large scale somewhat dubious.

Soil Health

To do biomass in a truly sustainable manner, one must figure out how much wood, crop residue, or other usable material can be taken away without resulting in long-term degradation of soil quality. This is related to the ‘not taking more than can grow back’ issue, but it is important in its own right. Taking the entire crop from an area year after year to burn or convert into liquid biofuels leaves no decaying matter to feed the soil organisms that are essential to creating a healthy soil ecosystem. Healthy soil is essential to the long-term productivity of the growing operation, which brings us to the other major limitation.

Net Energy and External Inputs

Industrial agriculture, which largely ignores true soil health, makes up for that deficiency by adding synthetic fertilizers, which are sourced from fossil fuels and other finite resources. This is the equivalent of a student overconsuming caffeine so he can stay up and cram the night before a big exam or athletes using steroids to enhance performance. There is a notable shortterm boost in performance, but in the long run the method is unsustainable (and outright harmful if continued).

As supplies of fossil fuels and other key inputs to industrial agriculture hit their production peaks, those inputs will become increasingly expensive and, ultimately, minimally available. We will then be limited to whatever nutrients can be regained using traditional methods like cover cropping, manure from grazed animals, and waiting for more topsoil to form via weathering and bio-breakdown of rock. Even though such methods produce the healthiest, most sustainable soil, they are comparatively slow—they don’t give that quick (but temporary) productivity boost that most modern agriculture operations have become so reliant on. Without their external inputs, today’s biomass operations aren’t likely to look so appealing, and they certainly won’t scale up to replace any significant percentage of our soon-to-be-declining fossil fuels.

Is There any Such Thing as Sustainable Biomass?

Soil health is an issue that is routinely ignored in the current coverage of ethanol, biodiesel, and biomass. Grinning Planet is in favor of pursuing these energy sources sustainably, but pursuing them in an unsustainable manner merely trades our current bad energy approach for a different bad energy approach, and keeps us on the road to agricultural ruin.

As for net energy—also called ‘energy returned on energy invested’ (EROEI)—it is the key to why none of the wannabe energy solutions are as good as oil from an energy/profit standpoint. Oil is king when it comes to net energy. Remember that petroleum (as well as coal and natural gas) are essentially concentrated ancient sunlight—things grew and died; collected, heated and compacted over millions of years; and ultimately became fossil fuels. On such a geological scale, all biofuels, including biomass, are essentially grown and used in real time—with no bank of previously stored inputs providing a ‘free energy bonus’.

The marginal EROEI of bio-fuels is why there is no possibility that they can be scaled up to replace any significant portion of petroleum at today’s level of energy use. Don’t get us wrong—Grinning Planet is no fan of oil. Its reign is coming to a close, and it is imperative that ‘we leave oil before it leaves us’, as Richard Heinberg puts it. But all the happy talk about petroleum alternatives needs to be examined under the cold, hard light of net energy—with the sustainability of each biomass approach verified—to know whether the promises are real or whether biomass is just the latest energy fad and another way for someone somewhere to make a quick buck.

Wrap-Up

Whether biomass is burned directly, used to generate electricity, or refined into liquid fuels, it will no doubt have some role in our energy future. But the sustainability limitations on biomass mean we cannot count on it to scale up to help solve our energy problems or our greenhouse gas problems.

METHODOLOGY

The teachers are advised to give a project to each student and make them present it and then analyse their performance.

A SAMPLE PRESENTATION

Biomass Sustainability

  • Biomass refers to natural materials like trees, grasses, forestry waste and agricultural waste used for generating electricity
  • It is a renewable energy source and is C-neutral
  • There are certain potential problems associated with it

Problems with Biofuels

  • Soil Health
  • Net Energy and External Inputs

Soil Health

  • Presence of soil organisms, biomass residue in a balance
  • If biomass is continuously used, balance of biomass residue gets effected
  • Not taking more than nature can grow back, an essential point to be kept in mind

Net Energy and External Inputs

  • The ability of the soil to produce yield is net energy
  • External fertilizers boost the yield, but this is temporary
  • Permanency in yield has to be given priority

Energy Returned on Energy Invested (EROEI)

  • Petroleum is non-replaceable
  • Petroleum, coal, natural gas are fossil fuels
  • We are going into the future of restricted petroleum supplies

Sustainability of Biomass

  • No storage
  • Sustainability should be sought
  • Ability to replace biowaste
  • Maintaining soil health for long-term benefits
  • Reducing use of fertilizers that affect soil quality
ACTIVITY SHEET 1

Self-Evaluation

  1. Am I comfortable with the topic?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  2. Could I perform proper research on the topic?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  3. Did I organize all my ideas/material properly?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  4. While presenting, I was leaning on the table I was standing straight
  5. While presenting, I was standing at one place moving here and there moving according to the need
  6. Could I modulate my voice?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Sometimes
  7. I was speaking at a high speed slow speed moderate speed
  8. I could maintain proper eye contact with a few people the entire audience
  9. Did I make an effective beginning?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  10. The most difficult part of presentation was: Preparation Planning Practice Presentation Anything else

Peer Group Evaluation

Area: Excellent, Good, Average, Improvement Needed

Flow, vocabulary, sentence constructions

Thematic language coherence

Area: Excellent, Good, Average, Improvement Needed

Deviation from the topic

Clarity/brevity

Teacher’s Evaluation

Area, Excellent, Good, Average, Improvement Needed

Flow, vocabulary, sentence constructions

Thematic language coherence

Deviation from the topic

Clarity/brevity

Self-Evaluation

  1. Am I comfortable with the topic?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  2. Could I do proper research of the topic?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  3. Did I organize all my ideas/material properly?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  4. While presenting, I was leaning on the table I was standing straight
  5. While presenting, I was standing at one place moving here and there moving according to the need
  6. Could I modulate my voice?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Sometimes
  7. I was speaking at a high speed slow speed moderate speed
  8. I could maintain proper eye contact with a few people the entire audience
  9. Did I make an effective beginning?
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  10. The most difficult part of presentation was: Preparation Planning Practice Presentation Anything else _____
  11. I arranged the seating and checked the audio-visual equipment in advance of the presentation:
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  12. My presentations are rehearsed standing up and I practice responding to them.
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  13. I could tackle the question and answer session very well.
    • Yes
    • No
    • If no, why?_____
  14. I took the feedback and analysed it. It said:_____
  15. I carried notes to avoid confusion and they contained important points I used in my presentation.
    1. The notes were lengthy.
    2. The notes were crisp.
    3. The notes were clear.

Peer Group Evaluation

Non-verbal communication

Posture/hand movement/eye contact/facial expression

Voice/speed of speaking

Content of the presentation

Language flow

Sentences/words

Presentation skills

Introduction/development of content/closing

Techniques of closing the presentation

Presentation aids

Teacher’s Evaluation

Non-verbal communication

Posture/hand movement/eye contact/facial expression

Voice/speed of speaking

Content of the presentation

Language flow

Sentences/words

Organization of ideas

Presentation skills

Introduction/development of content/closing

Techniques of closing the presentation

The presentation

Presentation aids