Reading is that part of the learning process through which we get to know many things about the world. A library is considered to be a window to the world of knowledge. As you learnt letters and words, you started identifying the language on paper. Gradually, as you were growing, you were exposed to larger chunks of texts that you learnt to read, understand and later reproduce in different contexts like exams. Often, you had to read instructions in the lab and conduct experiments. Sometimes you had to read a book of not less than 200 pages and make a PowerPoint presentation. Thus, you have been reading various materials for various purposes. And whenever purpose varies, the attitude varies. To become an effective communicator, it is essential to hone your reading skills. This chapter attempts to bring an awareness about these skills.
Reading comprehension is different from ordinary reading. Reading comprehension deals with identifying, decoding and analysing the written text to grasp the ideas expressed, and understand the central theme. Reading along with listening plays a vital role in effective communication and there are many similarities between them. Similar to reading, listening involves hearing, decoding and analysing sound. Decoding involves identifying the coded message on the page. So this activity requires an ability to understand the language used in the text. Comprehending refers to: an understanding of the central theme, the major ideas expressed, and other details that you can grasp. Depending on the activity you are supposed to perform after reading the target text, you have to adapt your reading differently. The skills involve: speed, time, accuracy and activity involved (purpose) in the reading. If you are reading casually (everyday newspaper reading) or for pleasure, you do not have to apply any specialized skills.
THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVING READING SKILLS
Though as students you have been reading different kinds of written text from your childhood, the need to revisit and improve the skills needed is imperative at this stage of your career. This is also because you are going to attempt some important competitive exams like the CAT and the GRE, where reading comprehension is frequently tested. As students, reading skills are very essential for you to fair well in your regular courses as well, as you need to refer to more than one textbook to gain expertise in your concerned field of knowledge. Reading skills are also very useful in your workplaces, as you might have to read a lot of material to know, apply, demonstrate, show and solve a number of issues.
TYPES AND SKILLS OF READING
In your academic and professional career, you need to read varied material for varied purposes. One evergreen strategy of reading larger written materials is the SQ3R system of study:
You need to read the foreword and afterword, contents page, heading and sub-headings, timelines, non-verbal items used in the text, and the summary of the book/chapter. Do not presume that surveying will substitute reading, surveying will only give you a bird’s eye view of the chapter or the book you propose to read.
For example, survey this manual and answer these questions:
Q1. How many chapters does it consist of? What are they?
Q2. How many types of evaluation sheets does each chapter consist of and what are they?
Q3. What do you think about the overall evaluation sheets?
After you have had a glimpse of the material, you should begin to ask questions. The common questions you ought to ask yourself are: Who? When? What? Where? Why? You will be ready to answer these questions if you did your surveying properly. You can start posing questions about this chapter like this:
- Why should we read this chapter?
- What are the major purposes of reading?
- How many kinds of reading types are identified?
- What are the important aspects of reading?
You shall answer the questions posed above completely only when you read the proposed material. Depending on the familiarity of the material and your purpose, you should read it thoroughly. Making notes, writing marginal notes and underlining or identifying significant ideas are good practices of reading. If necessary, read repeatedly until you get clarity. The effective note-taking methods are:
- Preparing charts
- Preparing outlines
- Listing the key words
- Preparing mind maps
- Preparing flash cards
- Preparing summaries
- Preparing timelines
Make sure that you understand the text completely, clearly and effectively and proceed only then for any concerned activity. Note-taking is all about going through the text carefully and identifying the central idea of each paragraph. That major idea becomes the sub-heading of each paragraph. Then you identify the important points of each paragraph and note them in abbreviations. An example of note-taking is given below for your understanding.
Observe the notes made for this chapter:
- Importance of reading skills
- in attempting competitive exams and routine academic exams
- read varied material
- hone reading skills
- Reading comprehension
- decode, analyse and understand
- grasp central theme
- skills involve time, accuracy and completing the target task
- identify purpose of reading
- Types of reading
- survey, question, read, recite and review method—use for unfamiliar and very important material
- labelling—very quick look at the important aspects
- skimming—quick reading
- scanning—a little detailed reading
- sampling—decide the relevance for reading
- studying—careful and detailed reading
- Strategies to improve reading
- identify poor and good readers
- develop vocabulary
- practise regularly
- improve reading speed
- read only with eyes
- pay attention to non-verbal items
- follow some related do’s and don’ts
This is a retention test that you are conducting for yourself. You might ask yourself a lot of questions, or discuss with someone who already read the text, or write down all the ideas you could understand to ensure your comprehension and memory power. Conduct reverse engineering of the notes you have prepared; this will enable you to analyse where you stand in this exercise.
If the material you are reading needs serious attention from you, and you need to store it in your long-term memory, then SQ3Rs is the most suitable method of reading. After finishing reading, reviewing it will reveal whether you could pay attention to all the necessary information. Review of the survey you conducted, notes you prepared, highlighting you did in the text and marginal notes you made will help you retain the matter in long-term memory. The other types of are as follows:
Labelling is a type of reading that does not focus on details of the text you are reading. When time is not sufficient to go through the details of a newspaper, you will try at least to read the headings, look at the pictures and any attractive graph or non-verbal element to roughly from an idea about the happenings of the day. Try and answer the following questions:
Q1. How many types of reading does this chapter figure?
Q2. What is the ready reckoner prescribed in this chapter?
Skimming is a type of reading, where the reader is supposed to read quickly, taking minimum pauses. The reader should not attempt to look into all the details and should focus only on the central idea and connected details of the text message. To be able to read to acquire knowledge, define, list things, describe, identify specific material, show or quote any specific matter, you should assess the overall purpose of the text, the central idea or theme and logical organization of the ideas. The reading material is usually newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias and so on.
We live in a world of advertising. As potential consumers, we are endlessly bombarded with all kinds of product or service information from various media including newspapers, magazines, television, radio, posters, the Internet, etc. Advertising provides a valuable service to society and its members, because it defines for consumers the meaning and the role of products, services and institutions. Advertising tells the consumer what a specific product; brand or service should do when it is used and thus helps him or her to understand and have an evaluative experience of the products. Language plays a key role in the advertising industry. Language and society are closely related to each other. Language reflects the social realities. At the same time any social change that takes place in the society leaves its imprint on the language. Acquaintance with English is assumed to be a hallmark of affluence. It is assumed that buyers of the international products prefer to use English for communication, or prefer English as a mark of prestige.
Media is the vital force that actually propels the process of globalization to its profitable end. Even as the international products are sold through out the nation, the information about these products is mediated through advertisements and other forms of communication in local languages. The fact that products cross regional boundaries may be given as a justification for using English. In this context, the control over the language is not in the hands of scholars or academic institutions. It is shaped by traders and marketing agencies like the creative advertising writers.
How do we get information about a product?
We get information regarding a product through the media.
What is important in advertising?
Who shapes the language of advertisements?
Traders and marketing agencies.
How do advertisements help the consumer?
They help the consumer to understand and have an evaluative experience of the product
Scanning is a type of reading that gives the reader sufficient time to look into the central idea and subsidiary ideas associated with it. The reader should carefully look for necessary details. This is an advanced skill that can be honed only when you are adept at skimming the text. To gain expertise in scanning, you should know your purpose before you read. With adequate concentration, ability to use guides and aids and ability to understand the organization of the material, you will be able to improve scanning skills. As a student and as a professional, when you are reading reference material, you are supposed to comprehend, explain, describe, differentiate and summarize the required material. Scanning is the skill useful in this regard and you should know to focus on the specific part of the text that contains the necessary information and avoid the rest.
The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is now a World Heritage Monument. The 34th session of the World Heritage Committee, presently underway in Brasilia, has inscribed Jantar Mantar in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation’s World Heritage List. Thirty-three countries across the world had submitted 32 sites for consideration this year.
The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur was chosen since ‘it is the most significant and the best preserved of India’s historic observatories’. The UNESCO website observes that these structures ‘designed for the observation of astronomical positions with the naked eye, embody several architectural and instrumental innovations’.
Located outside the city palace, this large stone observatory with its many instruments was built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in the 18th century. It is one of the one of the four existing astronomical observatories in India. The others are located in Varanasi, Delhi and Ujjain. The fifth one built in Mathura is not extant. The Samrat Yantra in Jaipur is one of the largest sundials in the world, with its gnomon raising about 73 feet above its base.
India had also submitted the Matheran Light Railway line for consideration as an extension of the Mountain Railways of India, which includes the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Nilgiri Railway and Kalka-Shimla Railway that are already inscribed as heritage sites. (Source: The Hindu, ‘Jaipur’s Jantar Mantar Inscribed in the World Heritage List’, 3 August 2010.)
What does the passage speak about?
UNESCO’s proposal to consider Jantar Mantar as World Heritage Monument.
How many observatories are there in India?
How many countries have sent proposals to the World Heritage Committee?
What is the other proposal sent by India?
Extension of the Metheran Light Railway line.
Sampling is a type of reading useful in deciding what the relevant material for you to read is. So you need to read the preface or foreword, contents page, beginning and conclusion. By this time, you can take a decision whether to read the entire material or a part of it.
Studying is the most serious of all types of reading. When you are reading a technical, business, or scientific document of great importance to you which you wish to store in your permanent memory, you study it. Studying a text involves almost all the techniques of reading. You can also apply the SQ3R system to study important documents. When you read and skim it for the first time, underline the main idea. Then, while scanning it, prepare notes identifying its main and associated ideas. Next, prepare a paraphrase or summary of the text. To summarize, eliminate all unimportant details and substitute long descriptions with suitable one-word substitutes. You should not lose sight of textual coherence and logic. The next phase is interpreting the text, for which you have to thoroughly understand the central and associated ideas, tone and intention of the author. Such a type of reading would enable you to understand the major and minor ideas of the text, comprehend the language used in the text, distinguish between explicit and implicit information, and draw inferences and conclusions.
Summarizing is a process where you condense the length of the original text. A good summary would be one-third of the original text. To do so, you need to know the structure of the text, then read through it. While reading, identify some important points, and either underline or note them in a notebook. Understand the logical ordering of ideas in the text. Now, start writing the summary using the minimum number of words. This is possible only when you can substitute many words with a single word, and eliminate unnecessary details, descriptions and examples. Coherence and clarity have to be maintained.
Before the days of motor cars and buses, no one thought of the roads as specially dangerous places. People walked or rode on horse back or travelled on horse-drawn carts and carriages. Nothing went at a greater speed than that of a bicycle: so very few people got knocked down or hurt. But today, the roads are full of motor traffic, and they are the most dangerous places in the world. Many thousands of people are killed on them every year and many thousands are injured. Sad to say, among these are large number of children. Every year, a thousand boys and girls are killed on the road of England. Two-third of the number are below seven years of age. Of course, every possible thing is done to prevent accidents. Parents and teachers tell them about the dangers and warn them to be careful. But little children easily forget and step off the pavement or cross the road without looking to see whether any vehicle is coming. One of the best ways to prevent children from losing their lives on the streets is by helping them form certain habits. If day after day, they do the same thing in the same way, they, at last, do it as a habit.
Before the days of motorcars, people never travelled at a greater speed than that of a bicycle: so very few got hurt on the roads. But today, owing to increased motor traffic in England, many thousands of people are killed every year, a thousand being children mostly under seven years of age.
STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE READING
Reading is a habit for a few, a hobby for a few others and a professional compulsion for some. If it is a hobby and habit for you, this portion is not meant for you. Since the importance of reading is well-established, it is essential to groom yourself to be a good reader, if not an avid one (see Table 6.1):
|To Read Effectively||The Poor Reader||The Good Reader|
|1. Find areas of interest||Tunes out dry subjects||Opportunist; asks, ‘What’s in it for me?’|
|2. Judge content, not delivery alone.||Tunes out if delivery is poor||Judges content; skips over delivery errors|
|3. Hold your fire||Tends to judge prematurely||Doesn’t judge until comprehension is complete; interrupts only to clarify|
|4. Read for ideas||Reads for facts||Reads for central themes|
|5. Be flexible||Either takes extensive notes or does not take notes at all||Takes notes whenever needed; uses four to five different systems, depending on the text and its significance|
|6. Analysing while reading||Shows no energy output; fakes attention||Works hard; exhibits active body state|
|7. Resist distractions||Is distracted easily||Fights or avoids distractions; tolerates bad habits; knows how to concentrate|
|8. Exercise your mind||Resists difficult expository material; seeks light, recreational material||Uses heavier material as exercise for the mind|
|9. Keep your mind open||Reacts to emotional words and ideas||Interprets emotional words; does not get hung up on them|
The strategies to improve reading:
- Start understanding and digesting the significance of reading.
- Begin to read anything that pleases you most.
- Spend a little time every day and fix a particular time of the day for reading.
- Slowly increase the time duration for reading.
- Gradually, read variety of material available to you.
- Then get used to borrowing books and other written texts from different sources.
- Develop a penchant for reading.
STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION
Reading comprehension, as defined at the beginning of this chapter, deals with identifying, decoding, understanding and analysing the coded symbols in a text. So it is an activity that requires a good command over the target language to comprehend the logic of coherence, an understanding of the non-verbal items used (if any) in the text, an improvement in speed-reading techniques and also a quick grasp of the target activity.
- Regular and varied reading will give you a lot of scope to improve your vocabulary. Look into the dictionary whenever you find a new word. Pay attention to synonyms, antonyms, one-word substitutions, word-formation procedures and the usage of words in different contexts. You can also use your contextual common sense to guess the meaning of unknown words in an emergency.
- Logical analysis of various situations and problems will improve your ability to link items and see coherence in the ideas presented. Use the same approach for written text. This will enhance your ability to grasp the central idea and connected ideas in a written text.
- While reading the text, you should attempt to comprehend the main ideas presented in the text, specific details projected, the logical order of ideas, inferences drawn from the text and suitability of the presented ideas for application in a given situation.
- Non-verbal items like graphs, tables, pie charts and flow charts form an indispensable part of science and technology. You should pay special attention to studying them quickly.
The title or heading, the source, the sub-titles, the process of information transfer and the selection of non-verbal items, all these aspects reveal the details projected in a figure. So before you go into the details of a figure, try and understand these things:
- Reading comprehension can either begin by reading the instructions of the activity to be performed or reading the text first. But do take proper care while reading the instructions. Once you know clearly what you are supposed to do after reading, the efficiency to perform the target activity improves.
- Identify the important words of the question and use your mind mapping ability to locate and then frame the answer. Do not use your background knowledge; follow what is written in the text.
TIPS TO IMPROVE READING SPEED
Table 6.2 Demonstrates the various kinds of reading speed:
|Reading Speed||Casual Reading||Academic and Professional Reading|
|Slow||Less than 200WPM||Less than 150WPM|
Speed reading is essential to improve your reading skills as you have to read large bodies of texts for different purposes. Your reading speed, though it does not determine your efficiency, is equally important, and is measured in words per minute. Reading speed is determined by your command of the target language, familiarity of the field of knowledge, the purpose of reading, and your concentration against distractions both internal and external. Fixation is another factor that affects the reading speed. Fixation is stopping for a long time at a word or a phrase, if you are not able to understand it. Lack of familiarity with the target text, poor vocabulary and lack of reading practice are some of the reasons.
Beyond the above-mentioned points, the way you read determines reading. Observe the way you read: is it loud reading, is it sub-vocal reading, silent reading or eye reading. Loud reading is what you are trained to do as a child to improve your speaking skills. This will hamper reading greatly. Once you get used to loud reading, even if you close your lips, you will be using your sub-vocal organs. So observe your reading carefully. Silent reading is avoiding usage of vocal and sub-vocal organs. Silent reading is alright, but this alone will not ensure speed reading. So the improvement of visual-perception skills is an essential factor to improve efficiency of speed reading; to do so, follow these tips (also see Table 6.3):
- Practise reading phrases or thought units, but not independent words.
- Avoid eye-fixation on a word or phrase for a longer time.
- Motivate yourself to read as this improves reading.
- Once you start improving accuracy of visual perception of words (identifying the words), you will improve the speed of reading.
- Do not move your head, but only move your eyes to improve reading speed.
- Make a deliberate attempt to improve visual-perception skills.
|1. Determine the purpose much before you read.||1. Go on reading without clearly understanding why are you reading.|
|2. Read a variety of material to familiarize yourself with the contents and vocabulary of various fields.||2. Restrict your reading to the selected field of knowledge and undermine other fields.|
|3. Be personally involved in reading.||3. Detach yourself from the activity.|
|4. Make reading a more active process, take notes as you read.||4. Make reading a passive process.|
|5. Follow SQ3R while reading unknown, lesser known, difficult and very significant material.||5. Apply unsuitable type of reading, as this takes away comprehensive capability required to perform the activity.|
|6. Pay attention to non-verbal items, as they are important in comprehension.||6. Ignore non-verbal items.|
|7. Use dictionary to improve vocabulary.||7. Get fixed at a word or a phrase for a long time.|
|8. Develop visual perception, read only groups of words.||8. Read loudly, use sub-vocal reading habit, read individual words.|
|9. Develop concentration with deliberate attempts.||9. Go along with distractions, internal and external.|
|10. Understand the type of question asked, whether it is based on the main ideas, sections of the text, words, phrases or sentences.||10. Blindly read the questions and start answering.|
|11. Read the questions at least twice. While answering, do depend on the information given in the text only.||11. Be in a hurry to read the questions and depend on your background knowledge to answer them.|
- Read the following passage and answer the questions:
The Otteri Nallah is around 12 km in length. It is the major outlet for rain water in North Chennai. Along with the other major waterways of Chennai, the water remains heavily polluted and is one of the causes for diseases like Diarrhoea. Otteri Nallah flows through very important localities and the public resort to dumping of garbage, plastic wastes, rubbish and debris into the stream. This nallah also flows during non-rainy days and certain weed and bush growth is observed in and along the nallah. Further it has a lot of silt and shoal formation in the nallah due to which the stagnation is aggravated resulting in a foul odour. Every year, although weed growth and desilting are taken up, it reverts to its previous state due to a recalcitrant public who resort to throwing garbage and other rubbish into the nallah. The proposal was to divert a portion of flood waters to an extent of 400 cusecs by providing a straight cut canal from Otteri Nallah at New Avadhi road to Cooum River near Mehta Nagar Bridge. Similarly there is another link from K4 Police station to Cooum near Anna Nagar Bridge.
Otteri Nallah is mostly clay, shoal and sandstone. From the average annual rainfall intensity of 31.39 mm, about 29.4% of runoff is received from the rainfall itself. Using this rainfall-runoff values, planning of watershed and management activities can be done. The variation in estimated surface runoff by SCS-CN model is dependent on the land use conditions of the basin, which is more realistic in nature. Therefore, it is always necessary to integrate physiographic, storm and soil land use characteristics of the basin to estimate flooding in ungauged catchments with a certain degree of reliability. We find the total runoff in Otteri Nallah WS by using Rational method is 139.13 m3/sec. We find the total runoff in Otteri nallah WS by using SCS curve number technique is 104.13 m3/sec.
The study reveals that SCS-CN model could be used to surface runoff depth when adequate hydrological formation is not available. It is an advantage to decore the inputs using RS&GIs techniques for extracting the watershed related information (land use & soil) very quickly and accurately for estimation of runoff from ungauged catchments with certain degree of reliability.
The manual calculation of CN’s for large areas or many drainage basins can be cumbersome and time consuming, therefore a GIS is an appropriate tool to use for such an application. Emerging techniques like GPS, GIS and Digital Photogrammetry hold the promise of making research and management tasks easier and provide capabilities previously unknown. Usually rational method is used for urban catchments. Chennai is an urban catchment area so it is adopted. Nowadays SCS Curve number technique is widely used because of the sophisticated software available. This reveals that SCS curve method can also be applied for assessment of runoff in urban areas, which gives relatively conservative values over conventional methods like the Rational method. The computed runoff values are useful for further analysis of watershed and also for management purposes.
Q1. The author is primarily concerned with:
- Location of the Otteri Nallah
- Anna Nagar bridge welfare
- Planning watershed and management activities in Chennai
- Flood water in Chennai
Q2. The passage conveys that GIS is an appropriate tool in research and application because:
- There are no other tools available tools
- Other tools are very costly
- There are no trained personnel to use other tools
- The manual calculations are protracted
Q3. According to the passage:
- Otteri Nallah is dependent on Cooum river water
- Otteri Nallah gets water from rainfall
- Otteri Nallah is flooded with sea water
- Otteri Nallah is causing a lot of rains during monsoon
Q4. The author is writing about:
- Pollution in Chennai
- Flood water management in Otteri Nallah in Chennai
- Various methods to study the catchment areas
- All of the above
- Read the following and answer the given questions:
Date of Birth:
16, Saidoji Street Triplicane Madras-600005
Can read and write
1. Dr Indra Mohan
Professor of English
A. M. Jain College, Madras
2. Mr Narasimhan
Synthetics India Ltd
Any further information
Other interests: Seldom go to films;
like travelling; sometimes play cricket
Sd. K. Robert
10 November 1988
Q1. How old is Venkat Raman now?
Q2. Where does Raman live?
Q3. Can he write in Tamil?
Q4. How old was Raman when he completed his BSc?
Q5. Raman likes_____.
Q6. How long do you think Mr Narasimhan has known Raman?
- Study the following and answer the question given below:
Q1. What does Green House effect mean?
Q2. What are the major effects of Green House emissions?
Q3. _____is one of the major causes for this problem.
Q4. List the types of Green House effects.
Q5. What are the immediate consequences of Green House effect?
Q6. What prevents earth from freezing?
- Read the following dialogue and write about project writing.
Welcome to the last term of the final year. Hope you have had a good academic year till now. Some of you might be waiting to submit your project assignments. What I would like to do in this session is to clarify your doubts regarding submission of project reports. Please feel free to raise queries or doubts.
O.K. Sir, is there a fixed last date for it?
I can confirm that its 28 February 2009 and not 19 February as we had first stated. O.K.?
What about the length of the report, Sir?
It can be flexible, but including the cover page, it may be around 90 to 100 pages, and you have already chosen the topic.
I am afraid I…I haven’t selected the title. What should I do now?
Don’t worry, your project guide will help you in that respect. I think I can suggest one thing to you. There is a seminar going on in the Communication Skills Laboratory on ‘Preparing Project Reports’, which may give you an idea regarding your choice of title.
Thank you, Sir.
- Read the following advertisement and prepare the comparative statement in a tabular form:
- Read the following short story and answer the questions:
A hare once met a tortoise and was rude to him. She not only boasted of her speed in running but made fun of the slow and clumsy way in which the tortoise moved.
‘Slow as I am, said the tortoise, ‘I am willing to run a race with you whenever you like.’
‘Very well,’ replied the hare, ‘let us start now’
So the race began. Away they both went, the hare bounding away at great speed, and the tortoise plodding along at a slow and steady pace. When the hare reached the middle of the course, she resolved to take a nap, thinking that if the tortoise passed her, she could easily overtake him. But she overslept, and when she reached her goal, she found that the tortoise had got there before her.
Q1. Why did the tortoise offer to run a race with the hare?
Q2. If the hare and the tortoise had been equally wise, which would have won the race?
Q3. How can you say that the hare knew of its superiority?
Q4. Why was the hare defeated in spite of its greater speed?
Q5. When did the tortoise pass the hare?
Q6. The hare was too_____[swift, lazy, confident]
- Read the form and answer the questions that follow:
SOUTH CENTRAL RAILWAYRESERVATION/CANCELLATION REQUISITION FORM
If you are medical practitioner, please tick ( ) in box
If you could be of help in an emergency
If you want a senior citizen concession, please write yes/no in box (if yes, please carry a proof of age during the journey to avoid inconvenience of penal charging under extant railway rules)
Train No. Name Date of journey class
No. of Berths/Seats station from To:
Boarding at:HYDERABAD Reservation up to: CHENNAI
CHILDREN BELOW 5 YEARS(FOR WHOM TICKET IS NOT TO BE ISSUED)Onward/Return Journey Details
Train No. & Name:________________ Date of Journey:_______________ Class:_______________
No. of Berths/Seats:________________ Station From:_________________ To:_________________
Name of Applicant: B. ANURADHA
Full Address: H.NO. 5-3-716, Jeera,
Signature of the Applicant/Representative
Telephone No.: 23451760 Date: 30.2.10 Time: 1.25 pm
For office use only
S. No. Requisition:_______________ PNR No._______________ Berth/Seat no._______________
Amount collected:____________________ Signature of Reservation Clerk:____________________
Q1. Where is the train going to, and from where is it coming?
Q2. How many male and how many female passengers are travelling on the train?
Q3. At what time does it start from Hyderabad?
Q4. Do railways provide meals in this express?
Q5. What are the senior citizens supposed to carry?
Q6. What is the lower age limit for issuing tickets?
- Read the following passage and answer questions:
Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, stone aggregates and water. Concrete has two main stages:
- Fresh concrete
- Hardened concrete
It should be stable and should not segregate or bleed during transportation and placing when it is subjected to forces during handling operations. The mix should be cohesive enough to be placed in the form around the reinforcement, and it should also be possible to cast it into the required shape without losing homogeneity under the available techniques of placing the concrete at a particular job.
The most important property of hardened concrete is its strength which represents the ability to resist forces. The comprehensive strength of hardened concrete is generally considered to be the most important property and is often taken as the index of the overall quality of concrete.
It is defined as the ease with which the concrete is handled, transported and placed so that concrete remains homogenous. Workability depends on content, aggregate (shape and size distribution), cementitious content and age (level of hydration), and can be modified by adding chemical admixtures. Excessive water will lead to increased blending (surface water) and/or segregation of aggregates (when the cement and aggregates start to separate), with the resulting concrete having reduced quality. Workability of the concrete may be determined by slump test, compaction factor test.
It is the ease with which concrete can be compacted. In other words, it is the amount of internal work required to produce complete compaction. The addition of admixtures greatly increases compact ability. The ability of concrete to remain a stable, homogenous mass without segregation both during handling and during vibrations is termed as stability. It can be defined as separating out of the ingredients of a concrete mix, so that the mix is no longer in a homogeneous condition. Only the stable homogeneous mixture can be fully compacted. It can be minimized by adding a small quantity of water to improve the cohesion of the mix. Bleeding occurs due to the rise of water in the mix to the surface because of the inability of the solid particles in the mix to hold all particles under the effect of compaction. The bleeding causes formation of a porous, weak and non durable concrete layer at the top of placed concrete.
Q1. The passage supplies information to answer which of the following question:
- How many types of concrete are explained in the passage?
- How will you prepare concrete?
- What are the additives used in the concrete?
- How will you use concrete mix?
Q2. The author considers the concrete as:
- Essentially a mixture
- An element found in the earth
- Mixture of elements
- Building material essentially a mixture
Q3. The concrete is mixture that should be tested for the following properties:
- The first two options
- The first three options
Q4. It would be inferred from the passage that:
- Concrete should be properly mixed and tested before using as building material
- Concrete is a homogeneous mixture available in the market
- The strength of concrete is obvious
- The concrete is stable material