Chapter 8 Additional Tools to Support iOCMTM – Managing Organizational Change

CHAPTER 8

Additional Tools to Support iOCMTM

In addition to those tools and templates that are commonly used in projects, there are additional tools that are needed to support an iOCMTM project implementation.

Task Cycle Process

Time is a precious commodity on all change initiatives, and there is often an intense pressure for project leaders to push back on any activities that are not considered project critical. In this atmosphere, it may seem counterproductive to formally allocate time for planning the most effective way to complete each task (particularly when the answers are often considered obvious).

However, when an organization makes the decision to include effective task planning as part of the overall project management process, projects see a reduction in overall project delays; develop more effective stakeholder communications; build stronger organizational engagement; and deliver significantly higher returns on investment.

This task planning process is based on the science of systems thinking (introduced in the section 360° Thinking in Chapter 6 ), which is the practice of taking the time to fully identify how things (and actions upon those things) will influence each part of the whole system.

When used in the context of project tasks, this planning process requires individuals to invest the time necessary to identify how small, seemingly unrelated tasks or events may result in significant impacts on other tasks within the project itself or parts of the organization as a whole. This ensures that each task is carried out in the most effective manner.

The task cycle process walks the user through every aspect of defining the task, planning the task, executing the task, and finally, identifying any follow-up tasks that might need to be planned. This tool is used to ensure all team meetings; solution demos; workshops, project status reviews, stakeholder engagement activities; and communications.

Effective Task Planning

Prior to assigning or beginning any task, you must first have clarity on the core purpose of the task, the desired outcome of the task, and the most effective process to accomplish the task. Additionally, you will need to identify what resources are needed to insure the task will be successful (data, other team members, communication materials, and so on).

Meeting planning should follow this same task cycle process to insure that meetings are well-planned and productive. When working through this task cycle process, it may become clear that holding a meeting is not the best way to achieve the stated purpose, and that placing a call, providing a written update, having a one-on-one conversation, and so on may be more effective.

The task cycle process is divided into four sections: task purpose; task products; task process; and task functioning capability. The following is an example of the things that need to be considered in each of these ­sections when planning a meeting.

  1. Task Purpose (What useful purpose will this task serve?)

    The purpose of this task is to:

    (What is the high-level task definition, for example, prepare business leaders a status update; schedule solution demonstration; draft UAT scenarios; and so on)

    In a way that:

    (How will the task be accomplished, for example, in a meeting that will be facilitated by ** and includes **, **, and ** and provides audience-­specific information in a slide presentation and handouts and is no longer than 45 minutes and requests formal agreement by all in attendance to **)

    So that:

    (What is it that needs to be accomplished as a result of this task? Will attendees gain or provide understanding, data or collateral? Will decisions be made? Will feedback be given or responded to? Will tasks be assigned and accepted?)

  2. Task Products (What are the desired outcomes or products of the task)

    At the end of this task, we will:

    (Achieve; complete; plan; assign; create; and so on). Prior to assigning or beginning any task, you must first have clarity on the core purpose of the task, the desired outcome of the task, and the most effective process to accomplish the task. Additionally, you will need to identify what resources are needed to insure the task will be successful (data, other team members, meeting location, and so on).

  3. Task Process

    What is the sequence that will be followed?

    (Meeting agenda; sub-task sequence; roll-out schedule; and so on)

    What method will be used to work with each agenda item; sub-task; roll-out activity?

    (Group discussions; presentations; handouts; one-way dialog; demonstrations; tests; training; and so on)

    What are the time limits for each agenda item?

    (Not just time slots: how much time is needed to adequately cover an agenda item without compromising the time needed for other agenda items?)

  4. Functioning Capability (What is needed in order to effectively engage in the process to produce the desired product?)

Knowledge:

(What do the attendees need to know before, during, and after the meeting to make sure they are prepared to fully participate or understand?)

Skill:

(Are there any specific skills necessary for the meeting to be successful, for example someone has to know how to set up and run a WebEx meeting)

Purpose:

(Not of the meeting, of the attendees, is it to participate, to learn, to agree, to sign-off, and so on)

Group Guidelines:

(The rules: read or prepare something ahead of time; wait to the end to ask questions; turn off cell phones, and so on)

Logistics:

(Participants; meeting rooms; materials or collateral; travel; local business or national holiday schedules; computers; software access; and so on)

Stakeholder Engagement Plan

On some change implementation projects, the project manager relies on the formal project communication plan to identify stakeholder engagements. This approach is based on the assumption that engagement is synonymous with messaging. Unfortunately, relying solely on the project’s communication plan to ensure thorough and effective stakeholder engagement is seldom effective.

It is not enough to keep stakeholders informed of project statuses, effective stakeholder engagement must move each stakeholder group to actively support the change initiative. With this in mind, it is clear that a formal stakeholder engagement plan must include specific plans for each of the stakeholder groups. And, that plan must provide a detailed description of the planned engagement activities, as well as the intended outcomes for each of those groups.

As you will see in the following list of stakeholder group engagement activities, there are a variety of engagement activities that will be involved to ensure success.

Executive leadership

Engagement type

Intended outcomes

Executive sponsorship

Meeting

  • Face-to-face meeting with executive sponsor to define role and tasks and to gain formal acceptance

Executive leadership engagement

Ongoing meetings:

  • Purpose of change initiative tied to company vision or goals
  • Project scope, budget, high-level impacts, and timeline reviewed
  • Formal approval from executive leadership to initiate project
  • Communication message reviews for executive sponsorship cascade

Knowledge building

Meetings; presentations; e-mails

  • Ongoing project updates (milestones met, next steps, ­possible risks, and associated mitigation plans)

Call to action

Meetings; one-on-ones; presentations; e-mails

  • Commitment to add change initiative messaging to existing team meetings
  • Messaging and presentations provided to executive ­leadership by OCM lead to support their team meeting project updates



Business leadership

Engagement type

Intended outcomes

Business leadership engagement

Meetings; presentations; e-mails

  • Purpose of change initiative tied to company and business unit vision or goals
  • Project scope, high-level impacts, and timeline reviewed, focusing on impacts to each impacted business unit

Knowledge building

Meetings; presentations; demonstrations; e-mails

  • Ongoing project updates (milestones met, next steps, risks and associated mitigation plans) with a focus on business impacts

Call to action

Meetings; one-on-ones; presentations; e-mails

  • Business sponsor role(s) filled and tasks explained and accepted
  • Commitment to add change initiative messaging to existing team meetings
  • Messaging and presentations provided to business leadership by OCM lead to support team meeting change initiative updates



Mid-level managers

Engagement type

Intended outcomes

Mid-manager engagement

Meetings; presentations; e-mails

  • Purpose of change initiative tied to company and business unit vision or goals
  • Project scope, high-level impacts, and timeline reviewed, focusing on impacts to business units

Knowledge building

Meetings; presentations; demonstrations; e-mails

  • Ongoing project updates (milestones met, next steps, possible risks, and associated mitigation plans) with a focus on business impacts and functional groups reporting to mid-managers

Call to action

Meetings; presentations

  • SME roles filled and tasks explained and accepted
  • Commitment to add change initiative messaging to existing team meetings
  • Messaging and presentations provided to managers by OCM lead to support their team meeting change initiative updates

Post-deployment handoff for support

Meetings; workshops; e-mails

  • Deployment related at-elbow end-user support resources assigned
  • Ongoing skill building and reinforcement plans defined



General stakeholders

Engagement type

Intended outcomes

All employee ­introduction

Newsletters; team meetings; e-mails

  • All employee messages via company newsletter and e-mail from executive sponsor to introduce change initiative and periodic spot light messages

End-user communication or workshops

Team meetings; e-mails, lunch and learns; demonstrations; workshops

  • Provide role-specific information and answer questions

Role-specific training

Instructor-led training; online training; workshops; demonstrations; FAQs; stop, start, or continue guides

  • Formal end-user training
  • Informal lunch and learn or tips and tricks training

Change reinforcement or skill building

Team meetings; formal role descriptions; performance ­evaluations

  • Change role-specific requirements and expectations added to existing team meetings
  • Online training; FAQs; stop, start, or continue guides; lunch and learns
  • Post-deployment, role-specific skill building


The following is an example showing the planned engagement activities for possible secondary Stakeholder groups that may be involved:

Secondary stakeholders

Engagement type

Intended outcomes

Union leaders

Union leader ­engagement

Meetings; e-mails

  • Project overview focused on impacts to union membership and existing union agreements
  • High-level project status updates—focused on union ­membership impacts and existing union agreements

Project status updates

Legal or Regulatory

Legal or regulatory engagement

Meetings; e-mails

  • Purpose of change initiative tied to company and business unit vision or goals
  • Project scope and known legal or regulatory impacts
  • High-level project status updates—focused on legal or regulatory impacts
  • Meetings to identify existing and possible legal or regulatory risks and development of appropriate mitigation plan for each

Project status updates

Risk identification or mitigation

Human Resources

Human resources engagement

Meetings; e-mails

  • Purpose of change initiative tied to company and business unit vision or goals
  • Project scope, high-level impacts, and timeline reviewed, focusing on impacts to HR activities (hiring requirements; onboarding processes; changes to role descriptions or wages; and so on)
  • Meetings to identify existing and possible HR risks and development of appropriate mitigation plan for each

Risk identification or mitigation

Customers

Customer impacts

Meetings; e-mails

  • Notification of expected changes to tools or processes that would impact customers (access to online ordering; delays expected as a result of deployment activities; change to customer data requirements, and so on)
  • Customer-specific messages to reiterate anticipated impacts; changes to customer requirements; and so on

Communication

Suppliers

Supplier engagement

E-mails

  • Notification of expected changes to tools or processes that would impact suppliers (access to online ordering; delays expected as a result of deployment activities; change to supplier data requirements, and so on)
  • Supplier-specific messages to reiterate anticipated impacts; changes to supplier requirements; and so on

Communication

Stakeholder Engagement Roadmap

The sponsorship engagement plan provides an outline of the sponsorship engagement activities. This document will be used by the project manager or change lead to define the actual engagement tasks for each phase of the project. Once this has been completed, a sponsorship roadmap will be developed to provide a high-level graphic view of when and how each stakeholder group will be engaged throughout the project. This graphic will be used when presenting the stakeholder engagement plan activities with executive leaders, project sponsors, business leaders and managers, and SMEs.

When developing the stakeholder engagement roadmap, you will begin with the change initiative’s project’s timeline:

Then, all of the engagement activities for each stakeholder group will be overlaid onto that timeline. This will clearly show when stakeholder engagement activities will be taking place in relationship throughout each phase of the project’s timeline, with the milestones associated with each phase of the project:

Each sponsorship engagement included in the sponsorship engagement roadmap will need to be supported by a purpose statement and task cycle to ensure all resources needed to successfully implement each engagement activity has been identified, and all tasks are appropriately assigned.

Prosci’s ADKAR Assessment Tool

The secret to successfully implementing organizational change when deploying new tools and processes is rooted in ensuring change at the individual level. But, as has already been covered in great detail, this cannot be done by merely telling people they must change, or by training people on how to change, or even by punishing them for not changing. It requires a significant investment of time and energy into identifying stakeholder group-specific issues that need to be addressed before individuals within that group will be prepared to accept and embrace the change.

Prosci’s ADKAR assessment is an effective, simple tool for doing just that. ADKAR is an acronym for the five primary areas that impact an individual’s ability and desire to accept and embrace change—awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement.

This tool is normally used within the context of moving stakeholders through each of these phases of personal change as it relates to the overall change initiative. While this is very useful, limiting its use to this context does not take full advantage of benefits that this tool has to offer. Adding the use of this tool to all engagement activity planning will result in improved outcomes, by shifting focus from what event do we want to hold? to what outcome do we need to achieve at this event to improve the participants’ ADKAR scores?

Combining the ADKAR assessment tool with the purpose statement section of the task cycle tool to assess the intended audience prior to each stakeholder engagement event will help to identify the appropriate topic(s) to address, the level of information to provide, and the most effective delivery vehicle to use (presentation, workshop, demonstration, and so on). For example, if the audience is generally resistant to a tool change because they see no personal benefit, providing a demonstration on the tool without addressing actual benefits that they (or at least their functional or business group) will realize would be ineffective at best—but, in the worst case, this approach would build resentment. The additional time spent doing an informal stakeholder assessment during engagement planning will be far less than the amount of time it would take to address stakeholder resistance.

Once the purpose statement has been identified, the task or event owner would informally assess the intended audience’s pre-event ADKAR score. Based on that score, the task or event owner would identify a plan to address one or more of the ADKAR areas:

Task or event purpose

Pre-ADKAR score

The purpose of this meeting is to meet with the impacted business leaders to give them the latest project status update in a way that highlights achievements that matter to these specific leaders; points out delays or upcoming risks and the plan to mitigate them; get formal acceptance that they will carry out needed support tasks; set specific date for next follow-up so that these business leaders are engaged; are in agreement with mitigation plans; their role in the mitigation plan is clear and formal agreement is recorded

A: high

D: low

K: medium

A: low

R: low




ADKAR action plan

To address desire and reinforcement, the executive sponsor will introduce the purpose of the meeting; his or her expectations of business leader participation and support. OCM lead will provide the executive sponsor (and copy business leaders) a status update on all business leader tasks in one week.




When reporting event results, the task or event owner would include a post event ADKAR score to show whether or not the intended outcomes were met.

ADKAR action plan

Post-ADKAR score

To address desire and reinforcement, the executive ­sponsor will introduce the purpose of the meeting; his or her ­expectations of business leader participation and support. OCM lead will provide the executive sponsor (and copy business leaders) a status update on all business leader tasks in one week.

A: high

D: medium

K: medium

A: low

R: medium

Executive Sponsorship Communication Cascade Model

Each executive sponsor communication cascade will need to be customized for a specific change initiative to ensure it aligns with the actual structure and communication needs of that initiative. This tool is introduced during the initial project sponsor role review meeting to provide all project sponsors a clear picture of their role in the flow of change initiative information, starting with the executive sponsor’s messaging to first-line reports, and continuing down through the messaging for each sponsorship level. The following is an example of an executive sponsorship communication cascade:

What Is . . . Slide Decks

What Is . . . slide decks provide an overview of a single topic. The deck should include a definition of the item; overview of the associated ­people, processes, technology, and tools; and conclude with an explanation of associated value of that item.

The following is an example of how these slides might look, using the concept of data management as an example:

Data Management Definition

Management is a defined set of business rules and processes for managing and storing product data. Product data includes CAD models, drawings, requirements, specifications, manufacturing plans, assembly plans, test plans, test procedures, and results.

Effective data management ensures that end users have access to the most accurate data at all times because design changes are tracked using relationships between parts, requirements, and specifications, throughout the product lifecycle.



Data Management: People

Data management affects end users in the following areas across the organization:

  • Product ­development
  • Manufacturing
  • Purchasing
  • Quality
  • Suppliers
  • Finance
  • Administration
  • Project ­management
  • After-market


Data Management: Processes

Data management affects the following process across the organization:



Data Management: Technology

Data management affects the following technology across the organization:



Data Management: Tools

Data management affects the following technology across the organization:




Data Management: Value

Data management provides value to the organization:

  • Revision control, access control, and vaulting ensure data integrity and guaranteed end users the most up-to-date data
  • Supports global reuse of part, assembly, and product data
  • Reduced data storage needs by reducing duplicate data
  • Well-managed assemblies and relationships between parts
  • Easily build and modify E-BOMs, A-BOMs, C-BOMs, and BOPs
  • Maintain accurate audit history of product’s development
  • Establish relationships between requirements, specifications, and parts
  • Ensure decision makers have access to the most accurate information throughout the product lifecycle


Meeting in a Box

A meeting in a box is actually an Excel workbook that provides detailed information on all of the tasks necessary to plan and execute a meeting, as well as links to all collateral necessary to support that meeting. A meeting in a box is used when engagement activities or training events will be repeated across the organization. By providing a detailed meeting in a box for each recurring event, the project’s leadership is ensured that the event goals and messaging will remain consistent, regardless of who is responsible for facilitating the event.

When developing the meeting in a box for a specific event, it is important to keep in mind that the core goals and essential messages for each meeting will remain consistent. However, each facilitator will need to work with the organizational change lead to make appropriate adjustments to the meeting collateral in order to customize the materials for their specific audience and ensure that the presentation and supporting examples focus on what is applicable and important to their specific audience.

Each meeting in a box should include everything necessary to plan and implement an event. This will include a separate sheet for a detailed task cycle; links to event slide decks (with speaker notes), and any other supporting materials needed; a detailed planning calendar; and a detailed event agenda.

The following is an example of what would be included in the individual sheets within the workbook. Keep in mind that each meeting in a box will be unique, and while the example shows the minimum amount of information needed, there may be cases where additional information or collateral will need to be included.

Tab One

Meeting prerequisites

What needs to happen before the meeting?

  1. Sponsorship teleconference
  2. Technical review board approval of meeting collateral
  3. Business change leads pre-meeting

Why do the prerequisites need to happen before the meeting?

  1. To set expectations that executive leadership participation is required
  2. To provide business change leads meeting collateral
  3. To ensure business change leads understand the purpose and expected outcomes; to review the meeting in a box and toolkit for the event

What deliverables(materials, information, and so on) are required from the prerequisites meetings?

  1. Definition of the change solution benefits to the organization
  2. Identify each function or business group that will be affected by the change solution in this region
  3. Meeting in a box and tool kit, including:
  • Slide deck for meeting
  • Slide presentations for post-meeting workshops
  • Purpose, objectives, outcomes statement for meeting, or post-meeting workshops
  • Recommendation of attendee groups(s)
  • Miscellaneous tools to support the event message

How soon after prerequisites are met can the meeting be held?

Three weeks, to allow for meeting notices to be sent; rooms to be booked; schedules to be accommodated

Tab Two

Event planning calendar

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Week one

8

9

10

Planning meeting

11

12

Meeting notices sent

13

14

Week two

15

16

17

Planning meeting

18

19

Agenda e-mailed

20

21

Week three

22

23

24

Planning meeting

25

26

27

28

Week four

29

30

1

Wrap-up meeting

2

3

Meeting

4

5

Week five

6

7

8

Planning meeting

9

10

Attendee survey sent

11

12

Week six

13

14

15

16

17

Survey results sent

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Tab Three

The Purpose of this workshop is to:

To have the business leadership workout what the change solution means to their business

In a way that:

Introduces the organizational value for the change solution; is interactive and open to suggested benefits statement for each of the functional or business groups affected by the change solution

So that:

Each business leader articulates what the change solution will mean to their own business unit and end users; business leaders all agree on the appropriate resources needed from each business sector to support the change initiative to achieve maximum business benefit; each business leader has enough information and understanding to, and commit to the needed resources

Tab Four

Leadership workshop agenda

Time

allotted

Agenda item

Required output(s)

Risk of excluding or including agenda item

(low, medium, or high)

Role-Based, End-to-End Swimlanes

Process maps and system-level use cases are customarily used to show as is and to develop the to be processes.

Process map System-level use case

While these tools capture process steps that take place within the system, they are not as effective in capturing the business processes from a role perspective. Additionally, they do not capture those steps that are not associated with the tool, and this often leads to design and development decisions that are less than optimal.

Using role-based swim lanes to document the As Is processes and design the To Be processes ensures that all process steps are included, and not just those steps that are executed within a specific tool. This is a critical distinction; there are often mandatory steps in an overall process that are either completed manually or that are executed within a different tool (i.e., file a hard copy, hold a review meeting, notify a department head, update a database, and so on).

Swim lane template/example for a multi-system business process

Including all process steps allows the business team to provide a much better evaluation as to whether the entire process has been captured accurately and identifies any ancillary processes that may need to be addressed as a result of the intended change. This approach also provides the technical team insight into possible steps not currently in the existing tool that could be incorporated into the new tool.

But, there is another significant benefit of using role-based, end-to-end swim lanes to document all end user and system processes—the information they provide form the basis for more accurate test cases that requires a tester to do more than test if the solution works as designed. By requiring testers to walk through the actual process from the perspective of each role, they will be making sure that the solution works in a way that best supports end users.

Role-based test case

Step

Description

Results

Entry

Comments

Sign-off

1

Launch the designated environment’s URL

The solution login page is displayed

Bug found and fixed, see note

A-4 in ­documentation

2

Enter the designated User ID and Passwordvalues

Click OK

The Current Work browser is displayed

Super user

3

From the Navigation Bar, select Create =>Change Item => Change Notice

The Change Notice: Properties page is displayed

4

Click on the Auto Number button at the bottom of the screen

The Change Notice: Auto Number dialog is displayed

5

Click the Ellipses (. . . ) buttonbeside the Series Prefix field

This field is required

A Selection ­dialog is ­displayed

A value will be displayed if entry one is configured

EC-1111

Completed test cases will then be used as the basis for the user acceptance testing (UAT) documentation.

End-to-end, Role-Based UAT Case

During user acceptance testing, knowledgeable business process SMEs will use end-to-end, role-based use cases to walk through each ­process step. This will be done from every process role perspective.

During the UAT process, these business process SMEs will record any flaws, gaps, or questions that they identify at any given step, and this information will be provided to the technical team for review and response.

During UAT, business process SMEs will also capture screenshots of every step, which will be used for the role-based, end-to-end training documentation.

Step

Description

Results

Entry

Screenshot

Comments

1

Launch the designated environment’s URL

The Solution login page is displayed

2

Enter the designated User ID and Passwordvalues

Click OK

The Current Work browser is displayed

Super user

3

From the Navigation Bar, select Create =>Change Item => Change Notice

The Change Notice: Properties page is displayed

Need additional property field: ­STANDARD

4

Click on the Auto Number button at the bottom of the screen

The Change Notice: Auto Number dialog is displayed

5

Click the Ellipses (. . . ) buttonbeside the Series Prefix field

This field is required

A Selection dialog is displayed

A value will be displayed if entry one is configured

EC-1111

This is not the correct option.

Single-Topic Overviews and Tri-folds

Much like the What Is . . . slide decks, single-topic overviews and tri-folds are used to ensure consistent definitions and shared understanding across the organization.

Single-Topic Overview: Side One

Single-Topic Overview: Side Two

Tri-fold: Side One

Tri-fold: Side Two

Executive Project Status Dashboard

While every project provides project updates, these updates are often done in the context of a meeting, with the data being provided in slide format as part of a formal presentation. Following the meeting, attendees are sent an e-mail with the meeting slides attached, or a copy of the slides imbedded in the body of the e-mail.

There are two downsides to this approach. First, the data must be sized to fit onto a slide, which often requires the use of a very small font. In a meeting, this can be overcome when the facilitator verbally reviews all of the data, but can be problematic when provided electronically.

The second issue is that meetings are not always the best way to provide this information. Using a formal executive project status dashboard to ensure pertinent data is presented in a standard format every time.

**Project Name**

Executive Sponsor Update: (date)

Executive sponsor:

Business sponsor:

Project manager:

Project purpose:

Phase overview

Build and Unit Test exit gate planned for **/**/**

• Business ­processes ­documented

• Environment refreshed

• Configuration applied

• Functional designs

• Technical designs

• Unit test

• Build training development (conversion, integration, reports)

• Comms & change plan

• Data cleansing

• Service center detailed process assessment and documentation

Current Status

Risks \

Mitigation

Risk 1

Target: Aug 31st, 20**

Impact: Sept 2nd, 20**

Mitigation 1

Mitigation 2

Risk 2

Target: Oct 07th, 20**

Impact: Oct 14th, 20**

Mitigation 1

Mitigation 2

Risk 3

Target: Aug 07th. 20**

Impact: Sept 2nd, 20**

Mitigation 1

Mitigation 2

Next steps

• One

• Two

• Three

Attachments

(link to appropriate documents)