Contents – Methodology of Teaching Science

Contents

Preface

About the Author

1. Science as a School Subject

Introduction

Nature of Science

Science as a Process

Science as a Product

Importance and Values of Science

Science Education in India

Summary

Questions

2. Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science

Introduction

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

I. Cognitive Domain (Knowledge and Intellectual Skill)

II. Affective Domain

III. Psychomotor Domain

Writing the Teaching Objectives in Behavioural Terms

Behavioural Objectives in Cognitive Domain

Behavioural Objectives in Affective Domain

Behavioural Objectives in Psychomotor Domain

The Importance and Need for Writing the Objectives in Behavioural Terms

Summary

Questions

3. Instructional Planning in Science Teaching

Introduction

Need for Instructional Planning

Types of Instructional Planning

Steps in Instructional Planning

1. Content Analysis

2. Presentation of the Content

3. Teaching Aids

4. Specific Tasks for One Period

Summary

Questions

4. Methods of Teaching Science

Introduction

Selection of an Appropriate Method

Methods of Teaching Science

1. Lecture Method

2. Demonstration Method

3. Lecture-cum-Demonstration Method

4. Laboratory Method

5. Heuristic Method

6. Project Method

7. Problem Solving Method

8. Assignment Method

9. Question Answer Method

10. Role Playing Method

11. Brain Storming Method

Summary

Questions

5. Unit Planning and Lesson Planning

Introduction

Unit Planning

Lesson Planning

Summary

Questions

6. Teaching Aids in Science

Introduction

Need and Importance of Teaching Aids

Types of Teaching Aids

I. On the Basis of the Sense Organs Involved

II. On the Basis of the Size of Learner Groups

III. On the Basis of Learners’ Control over Teaching Aids

IV. On the Basis of the Experience Provided by an Aid

Dale's Cone of Experience

Effective Use of Teaching Aids

Summary

Questions

7. Curriculum in Science

Introduction

Aims of Science Education and Curriculum Organization—Critical Analysis

I. Primary Stage

II. Middle Stage

III. Secondary Stage

IV. Senior Secondary Stage

Principles of Curriculum Construction

I. Principle of Child Centeredness

II. Principle of Integration of Science

III. Principle of Flexibility

IV. Principle of Community Centeredness

V. Principle of Activity Centeredness

VI. Principle of Creativity

VII. Principle of Preservation of Culture

Summary

Questions

8. Science Laboratory

Introduction

Importance of a Science Laboratory

Characteristics of a Good Science Laboratory

Ideal Science Laboratory Design

Guidelines for Teachers

Maintenance of Records

Laboratory Discipline

Common Accidents and Their Remedies

1. Burns

2. Cuts

3. Eye Injuries

4. Poison

5. Inhalation of Gases

6. Fire

Precautions in a Science Laboratory

Summary

Questions

9. Evaluation in Science

Introduction

Measurement Versus Assessment Versus Evaluation

I. Measurement

II. Assessment

III. Evaluation

Purpose of Evaluation

Techniques of Evaluation

I. Tools to Measure Cognitive Outcomes

II. Tools to Measure Non-Cognitive Outcomes

How to Construct a Test?

I. Planning the Test

II. Framing the Questions

III. Administering and Scoring the Test

Types of Evaluation

I. Diagnostic Test

II. Remedial Teaching

Summary

Questions

10. Science Textbook

Introduction

The Need of the Science Textbook

Features of a Good Textbook of Science

I. External Features

II. Internal Features

Evaluation of a Science Textbook

Textbook Evaluation by Rating Scale

Summary

Questions

11. Science Teacher

Introduction

What Does a Science Teacher Do?

How to Be an Effective Science Teacher?

Summary

Questions

12. Co-curricular Activities in Science

Introduction

Science Fairs/Exhibition

I. Objectives of Science Fairs

II. Organization of a Science Fair

Science Museums

I. Objectives of a Science Museum

II. Organization of a Science Museum

Science Clubs

I. Objectives of Science Clubs

II. Organization of a Science Club

III. Activities of a Science Club

IV. Some Investigatory Projects of a Science Club

Science Educational Tour

I. Objectives of Science Educational Tours

II. Organization of a Science Educational Tour

Important Considerations for Planning Co-curricular Activities

Role of a Teacher in Science Co-curricular Activities

Summary

Questions

Appendices