Contents – Small Signal Audio Design, 3rd Edition

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 The Basics

Signals

Amplifiers

Voltage Amplifiers

Transconductance Amplifiers

Current Amplifiers

Transimpedance Amplifiers

Negative Feedback

Nominal Signal Levels and Dynamic Range

Frequency Response

Frequency Response: Cascaded Stages

Phase Perception

Gain Structures

Amplification Then Attenuation

Attenuation Then Amplification

Raising the Input Signal to the Nominal Level

Active Gain Controls

Noise

Johnson Noise

Shot Noise

1/f Noise (Flicker Noise)

Popcorn Noise

Summing Noise Sources

Noise in Amplifiers

Noise in Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistor Voltage Noise

Bipolar Transistor Current Noise

Noise in JFETs

Noise in Opamps

Noise Gain

Low-Noise Opamp Circuitry

Noise Measurements

How to Attenuate Quietly

How to Amplify Quietly

How to Invert Quietly

How to Balance Quietly

Ultra-Low-Noise Design With Multi-Path Amplifiers

Ultra-Low-Noise Voltage Buffers

Ultra-Low-Noise Amplifiers

Multiple Amplifiers for Greater Drive Capability

Chapter 2 Components

Conductors

Copper and Other Conductive Elements

The Metallurgy of Copper

Gold and Its Uses

Cable and Wiring Resistance

PCB Track Resistance

PCB Track-to-Track Crosstalk

The Three-Layer PCB

Impedances and Crosstalk: A Case History

Resistors

Through-Hole Resistors

Surface-Mount Resistors

Resistor Series

Resistor Accuracy: Two-Resistor Combinations

Resistor Accuracy: Three-Resistor Combinations

Other Resistor Combinations

Resistor Value Distributions

The Uniform Distribution

Resistor Imperfections

Resistor Excess Noise

Resistor Non-Linearity

Capacitors

Capacitor Series

Capacitor Non-Linearity Examined

Non-Electrolytic Capacitor Non-Linearity

Electrolytic Capacitor Non-Linearity

Inductors

Chapter 3 Discrete Transistor Circuitry

Why Use Discrete Transistor Circuitry?

Bipolars and FETs

Bipolar Junction Transistors

The Transistor Equation

Beta

Unity-Gain Buffer Stages

The Simple Emitter-Follower

The Constant-Current Emitter-Follower

The Push-Pull Emitter-Follower

Emitter-Follower Stability

CFP Emitter-Followers

Improved Unity-Gain Buffers

Gain Stages

One-Transistor Shunt-Feedback Gain Stages

One-Transistor Series-Feedback Gain Stages

Two-Transistor Shunt-Feedback Gain Stages

Two-Transistor Shunt-Feedback Stages: Improving Linearity

Two-Transistor Shunt-Feedback Stages: Noise

Two-Transistor Shunt-Feedback Stages: Bootstrapping

Two-Transistor Shunt-Feedback Stages as Summing Amplifiers

Two-Transistor Series-Feedback Gain Stages

Discrete Opamp Design

Discrete Opamp Design: The Input Stage

Discrete Opamp Design: The Second Stage

Discrete Opamp Design: The Output Stage

High-Input-Impedance Bipolar Stages

Chapter 4 Opamps and Their Properties

Introduction

A Very Brief History of Opamps

Opamp Properties: Noise

Opamp Properties: Slew Rate

Opamp Properties: Common Mode Range

Opamp Properties: Input Offset Voltage

Opamp Properties: Bias Current

Opamp Properties: Cost

Opamp Properties: Distortion

Opamp Internal Distortion

Slew-Rate Limiting Distortion

Distortion Due to Loading

Thermal Distortion

Common-Mode Distortion

Common-Mode Distortion: Bipolar Input Opamps

Common-Mode Distortion: JFET Opamps

Selecting the Right Opamp

Opamps Surveyed: BJT Input Types

The LM741 Opamp

The NE5532/5534 Opamp

Deconstructing the 5532

The LM4562 Opamp

The AD797 Opamp

The OP27 Opamp

The OP270 Opamp

The OP275 Opamp

Opamps Surveyed: JFET Input Types

The TL072 Opamp

The TL052 Opamp

The OPA2134 Opamp

The OPA604 Opamp

The OPA627 Opamp

Chapter 5 Opamps for Low Voltages

High Fidelity From Low Voltages

Running Opamps From a Single +5 V Supply Rail

Opamps for 5 V Operation

The NE5532 in +5 V Operation

The LM4562 in +5 V Operation

The AD8022 in +5 V Operation

The AD8397 in +5 V Operation

Opamps for 3.3 V Single-Rail Operation

Chapter 6 Filters

Introduction

Passive Filters

Active Filters

Low-Pass Filters

High-Pass Filters

Combined Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters

Band-Pass Filters

Notch Filters

All-Pass Filters

Filter Characteristics

Sallen and Key Low-Pass Filters

Sallen and Key High-Pass Filters

Distortion in Sallen and Key Filters

Multiple-Feedback Band-Pass Filters

Notch Filters

Differential Filters

Chapter 7 Preamplifier Architectures

Passive Preamplifiers

Active Preamplifiers

Amplification and the Gain-Distribution Problem

Active Gain Controls

Active Gain Controls Plus Passive Attenuators

Recording Facilities

Tone Controls

Chapter 8 Variable Gain Stages

Amplifier Stages With Gain From Unity Upwards: Single-Gain Pot

Amplifier Stages With Gain From Unity Upwards: Dual-Gain Pot

Combining Gain Stages With Active Filters

Amplifier Stages With Gain From Zero Upwards: Single-Gain Pot

Amplifier Stages With Gain From Zero Upwards: Dual-Gain Pot

Switched-Gain Amplifiers

Chapter 9 Moving-Magnet Inputs: Levels and RIAA Equalisation

Cartridge Types

The Vinyl Medium

Spurious Signals

Other Vinyl Problems

Maximum Signal Levels From Vinyl

Moving-Magnet Cartridge Sensitivities

Overload Margins and Amplifier Limitations

Equalisation and Its Discontents

The Unloved IEC Amendment

The “Neumann Pole”

MM Amplifier Configurations

Opamp MM Input Stages

Calculating the RIAA Equalisation Components

Implementing RIAA Equalisation

Implementing the IEC Amendment

RIAA Series-Feedback Network Configurations

RIAA Optimisation: C1 as a Single E6 Capacitor, 2xE24

RIAA Optimisation: C1 as 3 x 10 nF Capacitors, 2xE24

RIAA Optimisation: C1 as 4 x 10 nF Capacitors, 2xE24

RIAA Optimisation: The Willmann Tables

RIAA Optimisation: C1 as 3 x 10 nF Capacitors, 3xE24

RIAA Optimisation: C1 as 4 x 10 nF Capacitors, 3xE24

Switched-Gain MM RIAA Amplifiers

Switched-Gain MM/MC RIAA Amplifiers

Open-Loop Gain and RIAA Accuracy

Passive and Semi-Passive RIAA Equalisation

MM Cartridge Loading and Frequency Response

MM Cartridge–Preamplifier Interaction

MM Cartridge DC and AC Coupling

Noise in MM RIAA Preamplifiers

Hybrid MM Amplifiers

Balanced MM Inputs

Noise in Balanced MM Inputs

Noise Weighting

Noise Measurements

Cartridge Load Synthesis for Lower Noise

Subsonic Filters

Subsonic Filtering: Butterworth Filters

Subsonic Filtering: Elliptical Filters

Subsonic Filtering by Cancellation

Ultrasonic Filters

A Practical MM Amplifier #3

Chapter 10 Moving-Coil Head Amplifiers

Moving-Coil Cartridge Characteristics

The Limits on MC Noise Performance

Amplification Strategies

Moving-Coil Transformers

Moving-Coil Input Amplifiers

An Effective MC Amplifier Configuration

The Complete Circuit

Performance

Chapter 11 Tape Replay

The Return of Tape

A Brief History of Tape Recording

The Basics of Tape Recording

Multi-Track Recording

Tape Heads

Tape Replay

Tape Replay Equalisation

Tape Replay Amplifiers

Replay Noise: Calculation

Replay Noise: Measurements

Load Synthesis

Noise Reduction Systems

Dolby HX-Pro

Chapter 12 Guitar Preamplifiers

Electric Guitar Technology

Guitar Pickups

Pickup Characteristics

Guitar Wiring

Guitar Leads

Guitar Preamplifiers

Guitar Preamplifier Noise: Calculations

Guitar Preamplifier Noise: Measurements

Guitar Amplifiers and Guitar Effects

Guitar Direct Injection

Chapter 13 Volume Controls

Volume Controls

Volume Control Laws

Loaded Linear Pots

Dual-Action Volume Controls

Tapped Volume Controls

Slide Faders

Active Volume Controls

The Baxandall Active Volume Control

The Baxandall Volume Control Law

A Practical Baxandall Active Volume Stage

Low-Noise Baxandall Active Volume Stages

The Baxandall Volume Control: Loading Effects

An Improved Baxandall Active Volume Stage With Lower Noise

Baxandall Active Volume Stage Plus Passive Control

The Overlap Penalty

Potentiometers and DC

Belt-Ganged Volume Controls

Motorised Potentiometers

Stepped Volume Controls

Switched Attenuator Volume Controls

Relay-Switched Volume Controls

Transformer-Tap Volume Controls

Integrated Circuit Volume Controls

Loudness Controls

The Newcomb and Young Loudness Control

Chapter 14 Balance Controls

The Ideal Balance Law

Balance Controls: Passive

Balance Controls: Active

Combining Balance Controls With Other Stages

Switched Balance Controls

Mono-Stereo Switches

Width Controls

Chapter 15 Tone Controls and Equalisers

Introduction

Passive Tone Controls

Baxandall Tone Controls

The Baxandall One-LF-Capacitor Tone Control

The Baxandall Two-LF-Capacitor Tone Control

The Baxandall Two-HF-Capacitor Tone Control

The Baxandall Tone Control: Impedance and Noise

Combining a Baxandall Stage With an Active Balance Control

Switched-HF-Frequency Baxandall Controls

Variable-Frequency HF EQ

Variable-Frequency LF EQ

A New Type of Switched-Frequency LF EQ

Variable-Frequency HF and LF EQ in One Stage

Tilt or Tone-Balance Controls

Middle Controls

Fixed Frequency Baxandall Middle Controls

Three-Band Baxandall EQ in One Stage

Wien Fixed Middle EQ

Wien Fixed Middle EQ: Altering the Q

Variable-Frequency Middle EQ

Single-Gang Variable-Frequency Middle EQ

Switched-Q Variable-Frequency Wien Middle EQ

Switchable Peak/Shelving LF/HF EQ

Parametric Middle EQ

Graphic Equalisers

Chapter 16 Mixer Architecture

Introduction

Performance Factors

Mixer Internal Levels

Mixer Architecture

The Split Mixing Architecture

The In-Line Mixing Architecture

A Closer Look at Split-Format Modules

The Channel Module (Split Format)

Effect Return Modules

The Group Module

The Master Module

Talkback and Oscillator Systems

The In-Line Channel Module

Chapter 17 Microphone Preamplifiers

Microphone Types

Microphone Preamplifier Requirements

Transformer Microphone Inputs

The Simple Hybrid Microphone Preamplifier

The Balanced-Feedback Hybrid Microphone Preamplifier (BFMA)

Microphone and Line Input Pads

The Padless Microphone Preamplifier

Capacitor Microphone Head Amplifiers

Ribbon Microphone Amplifiers

Chapter 18 Line Inputs

External Signal Levels

Internal Signal Levels

Input Amplifier Functions

Unbalanced Inputs

Balanced Interconnections

The Advantages of Balanced Interconnections

The Disadvantages of Balanced Interconnections

Balanced Cables and Interference

Balanced Connectors

Balanced Signal Levels

Electronic Versus Transformer Balanced Inputs

Common Mode Rejection

The Basic Electronic Balanced Input

The Basic Balanced Input and Opamp Effects

Opamp Frequency Response Effects

Opamp CMRR Effects

Amplifier Component Mismatch Effects

A Practical Balanced Input

Variations on the Balanced Input Stage

Combined Unbalanced and Balanced Inputs

The Superbal Input

Switched-Gain Balanced Inputs

Variable-Gain Balanced Inputs

Combined Line Input and Balance Control Stage With Low Noise

The Self Variable-Gain Line Input

High Input-Impedance Balanced Inputs

The Inverting Two-Opamp Input

The Instrumentation Amplifier

Instrumentation Amplifier Applications

The Instrumentation Amplifier With 4x Gain

The Instrumentation Amplifier at Unity Gain

The Instrumentation Amplifier and Gain Controls

The Instrumentation Amplifier and the Whitlock Bootstrap

Transformer Balanced Inputs

Input Overvoltage Protection

Low-Noise Balanced Inputs

Low-Noise Balanced Inputs in Action

Ultra-Low-Noise Balanced Inputs

Chapter 19 Line Outputs

Unbalanced Outputs

Zero-Impedance Outputs

Ground-Cancelling Outputs: Basics

Ground-Cancelling Outputs: Zero-Impedance Output

Ground-Cancelling Outputs: CMRR

Ground-Cancelling Outputs: Send Amplifier Noise

Ground-Cancelling Outputs: Into a Balanced Input

Ground-Cancelling Outputs: History

Balanced Outputs: Basics

Balanced Outputs: Output Impedance

Balanced Outputs: Noise

Quasi-Floating Outputs

Transformer Balanced Outputs

Output Transformer Frequency Response

Output Transformer Distortion

Reducing Output Transformer Distortion

Chapter 20 Headphone Amplifiers

Driving Heavy Loads

Driving Headphones

Special Opamps

Multiple Opamps

Opamp-Transistor Hybrid Amplifiers

Discrete Class-AB Headphone Amplifiers

Discrete Class-A Headphone Amplifiers

Gain

Maximum Output

Noise Performance

Power Consumption

Balanced Headphone Amplifiers

Chapter 21 Signal Switching

Mechanical Switches

Input-Select Switching: Mechanical

The Virtual Contact: Mechanical

Relay Switching

Electronic Switching

Switching with CMOS Analogue Gates

CMOS Gates in Voltage Mode

CMOS Gates in Current Mode

CMOS Series-Shunt Current Mode

Control Voltage Feedthrough in CMOS Gates

CMOS Gates at Higher Voltages

CMOS Gates at Low Voltages

CMOS Gate Costs

Discrete JFET Switching

The Series JFET Switch in Voltage Mode

The Shunt JFET Switch in Voltage Mode

JFETs in Current Mode

Reducing Distortion by Biasing

JFET Drive Circuitry

Physical Layout and Offness

Dealing With the DC Conditions

A Soft Changeover Circuit

Control Voltage Feedthrough in JFETS

Chapter 22 Mixer Sub-Systems

Mixer Bus Systems

Input Arrangements

Equalisation

Insert Points

How to Move a Circuit Block

Faders

Improving Fader Offness

Post-Fade Amplifiers

Direct Outputs

Panpots

Passive Panpots

The Active Panpot

LCR Panpots

Routing Systems

Auxiliary Sends

Group Module Circuit Blocks

Summing Systems: Voltage Summing

Summing Systems: Virtual-Earth Summing

Balanced Summing Systems

Ground-Cancelling Summing Systems

Distributed Summing Systems

Summing Amplifiers

Hybrid Summing Amplifiers

Balanced Hybrid Summing Amplifiers

Balancing Tracks to Reduce Crosstalk

The Multi-Function Summing Amplifier

PFL Systems

PFL Summing

PFL Switching

PFL Detection

Virtual-Earth PFL Detection

AFL Systems

Solo-in-Place Systems

Talkback Microphone Amplifiers

Line-Up Oscillators

The Flash Bus

Power Supply Protection

Console Cooling and Component Lifetimes

Chapter 23 Level Indication and Metering

Signal-Present Indication

Peak Indication

The Log Law Level LED (LLLL)

Distributed Peak Detection

Combined LED Indicators

VU Meters

PPMs

LED Bar-Graph Metering

A More Efficient LED Bar-Graph Architecture

Vacuum Fluorescent Displays

Plasma Displays

Liquid Crystal Displays

Chapter 24 Level Control and Special Circuits

Gain-Control Elements

A Brief History of Gain-Control Elements

JFETs

Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs)

Voltage-Controlled Amplifiers (VCAs)

Compressors and Limiters

Attack Artefacts

Decay Artefacts

Subtractive VCA Control

Noise Gates

Clipping

Diode Clipping

Active Clipping With Transistors

Active Clipping With Opamps

1. Clipping by Clamping

2. Negative-Feedback Clipping

3. Feedforward Clipping

Noise Generators

Pinkening Filters

Chapter 25 Power Supplies

Opamp Supply Rail Voltages

Designing a ±15 V Supply

Designing a ±17 V Supply

Using Variable-Voltage Regulators

Improving Ripple Performance

Dual Supplies From a Single Winding

Power Supplies for Discrete Circuitry

Larger Power Supplies

Mutual Shutdown Circuitry

Very Large Power Supplies

Microcontroller and Relay Supplies

+48 V Phantom Power Supplies

Chapter 26 Interfacing With the Digital Domain

PCB Layout Considerations

Nominal Levels and ADCs

Some Typical ADCs

Interfacing With ADC Inputs

Some Typical DACs

Interfacing With DAC Outputs

Interfacing With Microcontrollers

Appendix

Index