Index – Market Economy and Urban Change

Index

Africa 13, 97, 133, 1378 see also sub-Saharan

Africa; individual countries

aid/aid agencies see donors

Algeria 456

Ankara, Turkey 33, 1556

Argentina 1289

Armenia 32, 149, 151, 1523

Asia 45, 50, 57, 66, 158

see also individual countries

Asian Development Bank (ADB) 45, 63

BNH, Brazil 33, 1667, 168, 171, 181

Bogotá, Colombia 356, 185, 186, 187202

Bolivia 1314, 189

Brazil

democratization 33, 34, 164, 165, 169, 170, 178, 179

housing provision 334, 51, 163, 16582

informal settlements 34, 1734

land tenure security issues 33, 34, 129, 137, 164, 1748, 181

market enablement 334, 164, 165, 170, 171, 173, 181

squatter settlements 645, 164, 16970, 173, 179, 180

welfare policies 1645, 166, 1689, 173

see also BNH; ZEIS programmes

Buchanan, James 57, 58, 62

Bulgaria 151

Cairo, Egypt 55, 89

Cameroon 135

Central Europe 51, 151

see also individual countries

Chennai, India 54, 63

Chile

housing provision 24, 468, 50, 51, 545, 61, 62, 63

land tenure security issues 128

China 46, 49, 51, 134

cities

economic importance 4, 5, 6, 13, 14

environmental issues 4, 13, 22, 200

government policies 5, 9, 1415, 16

infrastructure supply 1, 6, 15, 99, 185

management 1520, 22, 1879

market enablement affects 45, 1322, 1857, 195, 198200, 2012

public sector's role 2, 15, 17

security of tenure and property rights 33, 34, 60, 98, 125, 12834, 137, 140

urban poverty 4, 5, 1003

see also peri-urban space; rural–urban interface; urban development

city government see local government

civil society 11, 17, 1045, 170

Coase, Ronald 57, 589, 60, 61, 62, 68

Colombia

crime and security 1913

governance reform 36, 1878

land use 356, 1919, 2001

local government authority 36, 1878

market enablement 33, 35, 185, 186, 188, 195, 198200

neighbourhood development 356, 186, 190202

squatter settlements 188, 190

urban development 19, 33, 35, 36, 186, 18798

command economies 32, 14850, 153, 154

community-based organizations (CBOs) 17, 106, 108, 112, 113

Costa Rica 135

crime 103, 1912

Cuba 51, 160

developed countries 3, 8, 9, 13, 49, 55

DFID

aid conditionality 878

poverty reduction programmes 11, 105, 1078

on the rural–urban interface 29, 30, 125, 126

donors

conditional aid 8, 9, 11, 623, 64, 90

housing policies 26, 32, 44, 51, 636, 68, 778, 878

infrastructure supply involvement 65, 97, 99

in market enablement 1, 151

in poverty reduction programmes 11, 98, 11314, 115, 116, 117

on the rural–urban interface 1267

in sites-and-services projects 27, 534, 63, 88, 989

in squatter settlement upgrades 45, 989

structural adjustment policies 78, 12, 16, 168

see also International Monetary Fund; USAID; World Bank

Eastern Europe 51, 151, 159 see also individual countries

economic growth

capability approach 42, 43, 67

in cities 4, 5, 6, 13, 14

economic crisis affects 67, 22, 445, 50, 57

growth-with-equity paradigm 67, 9, 21, 24, 26, 27, 334, 88

housing provision relationship 43, 445, 48, 501, 54, 578, 656, 69

ideological approaches 489, 568

institutions’ role 5961

neo-liberal theories 2, 6, 8, 9, 12, 245, 97, 169

poverty relationship 20, 51, 57, 69, 101

supply-side approach 7, 15, 212, 32

welfare relationship 234, 42, 578, 124, 125, 164

Ecuador 1314

education 10, 13, 35, 489, 189, 1968

Egypt

aid conditionality 63, 789, 878, 90

economic policy 26, 78, 816, 902

housing provision 267, 78, 80, 82, 8490, 91, 92, 161

market enablement 26, 78

private sector influence 82, 83

reform programmes 26, 824, 86

social issues 78, 80, 82, 838, 91, 92

structural adjustment policies 83, 84, 86, 91

urban development 19, 82, 83, 87

welfare 26, 78

environmental issues 4, 13, 20, 22, 56, 62, 65, 200

equity issues

growth-with-equity paradigm 67, 9, 21, 24, 26, 27, 334, 88

in housing provision 24, 25, 334, 45, 4955, 67, 153

of land tenure security 34, 52, 55, 1389, 1789

of poverty 25, 117

of rural areas 1389

of squatter settlements improvement 27, 50, 51

Estonia 151

food aid and subsidies 10, 13, 80, 82

Ford Foundation 634

foreign aid see donors

Ghana 10, 134

globalization and market enablement 3, 513, 14, 165, 201, 202

governance

housing provision relationship 25, 45, 46, 5761

ideological approaches 5762

institutional-organizational form 55, 578, 5960, 61, 68

market enablement relationship 8, 9, 1520, 188, 199

the poor affected 18, 34, 11112, 170

reform 9, 1520, 22, 27, 28, 36, 165, 1878

stakeholder involvement 9, 1718, 20, 22, 28, 132, 160, 161

Guatemala 19, 136, 137

health issues 10, 11, 13, 52, 69

Honduras 134, 135, 137

Hong Kong, China 49

households

financial issues 505, 57, 89, 1003, 104, 118, 135, 150

in housing provision 245, 45, 468, 65, 66, 152, 1601

livelihood strategies 10, 27, 1001, 1023, 118, 170

welfare issues 42, 43, 60, 65

houses and housing

enclosed condominiums 35, 1923, 195, 199200, 201

financial aspects 19, 25, 47, 57, 89, 150

see also subsidies

flats and apartments 46, 148, 149, 152, 156, 1578, 176, 195

at neighbourhood level 35, 59, 1545, 186, 1913

in poverty reduction programmes 52

public housing 32, 47, 80, 87, 88, 155, 167, 169

rent and rent controls 53, 80, 82, 87, 89

self-help housing 245, 44, 45, 468, 60, 87, 169, 180

sites-and-services projects 27, 48, 535, 63, 64, 87, 88, 989

slums 18, 52, 59, 87, 88, 1701, 174, 179

subsidies 25, 46, 47, 4955

see also informal settlements; squatter settlements

housing provision

in command economies 32, 14850

community participation 645, 68, 156, 160, 179

in developed countries 49, 55

donor involvement 26, 32, 44, 51, 636, 68, 778, 878

economic crisis affects 445, 50, 66

economic growth relationship 43, 445, 48, 501, 54, 57, 656, 69

equity issues 24, 25, 334, 45, 4955, 67, 153

externalities 1545

financial aspects 1578

governance relationship 25, 45, 46, 5761

household involvement 245, 45, 468, 65, 66, 152, 1601

housing market distortion 889, 92

housing reform 467, 48, 50, 54, 65, 678

ideological approaches 246, 32, 33, 44, 48, 49, 5862

international housing policies 636, 67

local government policies 68, 1578, 16970, 171

market enablement relationship 148, 151, 163, 164, 171, 181

national government policies 68, 14853, 158, 167, 16973 see also public sector

for the poor 52, 689, 165, 166, 167, 168, 1701, 17980

by the private sector 45, 468, 545, 80, 87, 151, 152, 154

privatization 32, 150, 151, 157

public sector involvement 25, 323, 45, 468, 57, 80, 85, 181

technocratic responses 23, 26, 45, 78, 84, 92

transaction costs 589, 68

welfare relationship 246, 456, 150, 153, 1645, 166, 1689, 1723

whole-housing sector approach 245, 45, 468, 51

Hungary 45, 151

India 45, 49, 52, 54, 63, 137

Indonesia 1314, 45

informal settlements

growth of 4, 22

land tenure security issues 34, 169, 1747

poverty reduction programmes 1067, 112

upgrading projects 45, 98, 99, 104, 164

see also squatter settlements

infrastructure supply

in cities 1, 6, 15, 99, 185

donor interventions 65, 97, 99

importance of 45, 103

local government responsibility 16, 102

national government responsibility 64, 65, 67, 83

poverty relationship 44, 99

privatization 16, 20, 185

Inter-American Development Bank 54, 62, 168

Inter-American Development Foundation 634

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 68, 10, 26, 32, 45, 81, 83, 151

Jamaica 135

Jordan 59

Kenya

housing provision 51

informal settlements 4

land tenure security issues 135, 137

local government 28, 118

poverty reduction programmes 28, 105, 10610, 112, 116, 118

Kerala, India 49

land issues

economic aspects 21, 31, 1348, 140

government policies 32, 33, 1523

land conversion 29, 127, 128, 132

land market 29, 30, 125, 12731, 136, 1378

land reform 30, 31, 125, 12831, 132, 134, 136, 1378

land uses 6, 29, 35, 153, 1856, 1919, 2001

for local communities 31, 34

of peri-urban space 29, 30, 128

of the poor 17, 20, 33, 34, 99, 125, 129, 138

privatization 35, 36, 152, 153

see also land tenure security

land tenure security 29, 33, 52, 12839

in cities 33, 34, 60, 98, 125, 12834, 137, 140

equity issues 34, 52, 55, 1389, 1789

in informal settlements 169, 1748

in peri-urban space 301, 130

for the poor 21, 27, 334, 69, 989, 12930, 1812

property rights 31, 34, 52, 61, 12839

in rural areas 2930, 31, 130, 131, 1323, 1346

rural–urban issues 301, 1301

in squatter settlements 34, 99, 173

see also ZEIS programmes

Latin America

housing provision 44, 47, 165, 166

land tenure security 1289, 130

market enablement 66

poverty and poverty reduction 20, 112

urban development 186, 190

see also individual countries

Lesotho 33, 159

local communities

in housing provision 645, 68, 156, 160, 179

local government relationships 112, 1778, 179, 180, 1878

in participatory budgeting 1778

in poverty reduction programmes 28, 104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 113, 116

in squatter settlement improvement 645

in urban development 1718, 155, 156, 160, 1878, 199, 202

see also community-based organizations

local government

accountability 111, 112, 116

capacity-building required 19, 11314

constraints 1920, 36, 102, 104, 11112

housing provision policies 68, 1578, 16970, 171

infrastructure responsibility 16, 102

local community relationships 112, 1778, 179, 180, 1878

participatory budgeting 1778

in poverty reduction programmes 28, 1012, 10310, 111, 117, 118

urban development policies 19, 36, 155, 157, 159, 1878, 190, 202

Manila, Philippines 55

market enablement

cities affected 45, 1322, 1857, 195, 198200, 2012

in developing countries 811, 9, 10, 13, 14, 20, 22

donor involvement 1, 151

globalization relationship 3, 513, 14, 165, 201, 202

governance relationship 8, 9, 1520, 188, 199

government involvement 2, 15, 1501

housing provision relationship 148, 151, 163, 164, 171, 181

the poor affected 1011, 20, 22, 171

private sector involvement 89, 15, 17, 21

social issues 1011, 13, 21, 170

structural adjustment policies 1, 5, 1011

vs welfare 26, 33, 77, 78, 124, 133, 137, 16382

Mexico 7, 19, 33, 52, 128, 130, 136

Mombasa, Kenya 1078, 110

Morocco 1314

Moscow, Russia 33, 149, 155, 1578

municipal government see local government

Nairobi, Kenya 4, 20, 112

national government

decentralization see local government

externality control 147, 14950, 152, 154

housing provision policies 68, 14853, 158, 167, 16973

infrastructure responsibility 64, 65, 67, 83

land policies 32, 33, 152, 153

in market enablement 2, 15, 1501

policy-conditioned aid 2, 623, 64, 789, 90

in poverty reduction programmes 27, 102, 110, 111, 116, 117, 173

social contracts 22, 58, 78, 84, 91, 92

urban development policies 5, 9, 1415, 17, 32, 14752, 154, 1601

see also public sector

National Housing Bank, Brazil see BNH

neo-liberalism

in development 1, 2, 520, 27, 30, 97, 164, 171, 185

in economic growth 2, 6, 8, 9, 12, 245, 97, 169

in urban development 1, 154, 185, 186, 196, 198, 2012

Nepal 33, 159

Nicaragua 136

non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

in housing provision 54

in poverty reduction programmes 104, 1067, 108, 10910, 112, 113, 116, 118

in squatter settlement improvement 45

in urban governance 1718

North, Douglass 57, 601, 62

Pakistan 33, 159

Paraguay 134, 135, 137

peri-urban space

defined 29, 124, 127

land issues 29, 30, 128

land tenure security issues 301, 130

policy opportunities 2931, 124, 1257, 140

urban development 30, 158

Peru 130, 136

Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial (POT), Colombia 187, 188, 18991

poverty and the poor

in cities 4, 5, 1003

coping strategies 10, 27, 1001, 1023, 118, 170

economic growth relationship 20, 51, 57, 69, 101

equity issues 25, 117

governance issues 18, 34, 11112, 170

housing provision 52, 689, 165, 166, 167, 168, 1701, 17980

infrastructure relationship 44, 99

land issues 17, 20, 33, 34, 99, 125, 129, 138

land tenure security 21, 27, 334, 69, 989, 12930, 1812

market enablement affects 1011, 20, 22, 171

structural adjustment policies affect 1011, 20, 97, 117

poverty reduction programmes

community participation 28, 104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 113, 116

donor involvement 11, 98, 11314, 115, 116, 117

funding 11617

housing provision 52

key principles 28, 1045

local government involvement 28, 1012, 10310, 111, 117, 118

monitoring and evaluation 105, 107, 115, 116

national government involvement 27, 102, 110, 111, 116, 117, 173

NGO involvement 104, 1067, 108, 10910, 112, 113, 116, 118

partnership approach 1045, 106, 10810, 11415, 118

private sector involvement 104, 109

problems 27, 29, 107, 10910, 115, 116, 11718

project preparation 10510, 11314, 115

public sector involvement 97, 101, 103, 1045, 107, 114, 11617

public services provision 11, 13, 104

stakeholder involvement 11, 28, 1045, 106, 1089, 112, 113, 11617

see also Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) 1011, 20

private sector

in housing provision 45, 468, 545, 80, 87, 151, 152, 154

market enablement involvement 89, 15, 17, 21

in poverty reduction programmes 104, 109

in urban development 36, 82, 83, 1478, 154, 161, 188, 1906

see also privatization

privatization

of housing provision 32, 150, 151, 157

of infrastructure supply 16, 20, 185

of land 35, 36, 152, 153

of public services 12, 1617, 20, 104, 186, 189, 193, 199

public–private partnerships 323, 148, 154, 155

public sector

in housing provision 25, 323, 468, 57, 80, 85, 181

in poverty reduction programmes 97, 101, 103, 1045, 107, 114, 11617

public services responsibility 7, 16, 104

in urban development 2, 14, 1718, 154, 155, 160, 161

see also local government; national government

public services

in poverty reduction programmes 11, 13, 104

privatization 12, 1617, 20, 104, 186, 189, 193, 199

public sector responsibility 7, 16, 104

Recife, Brazil 33, 34, 129, 164, 1738, 181

Romania 149, 151, 152

rural areas

equity issues 1389

land tenure security issues 2930, 31, 130, 131, 1323, 1346

property rights issues 31, 128, 1323, 1345, 138

urbanization 29, 123, 140

see also peri-urban space; rural-urban interface

rural–urban ‘interface’

defined 124, 127

land tenure security issues 301, 1301

policy opportunities 2931, 124, 1257, 140

promoting 29, 126

Russia 149, 150, 151, 152, 155 see also USSR

shelter see housing provision

Singapore 46, 47, 489, 50, 51, 55, 63, 67

Slovenia 151

Social Interest Development Zones, Brazil

see ZEIS programmes

social issues

of market enablement 1011, 13, 21, 170

social contracts with government 22, 58, 78, 84, 91, 92

social safety nets 10, 103, 153

socialist countries 32, 44, 456, 51, 5960, 14850

South Africa 137, 150

South America 14950 see also individual countries

Soviet Union see USSR

squatter settlements

equity issues 27, 50, 51

housing subsidies 54

land tenure security issues 34, 99, 173

legalization 34, 12930, 164

resettlement programmes 16970

upgrading projects 27, 45, 47, 54, 61, 63, 645, 66

see also informal settlements

Sri Lanka 49, 54, 55, 113

St Petersburg, Russia 149

stakeholders

in poverty reduction programmes 11, 28, 1045, 106, 1089, 112, 113, 11617

in urban governance 9, 1718, 20, 22, 28, 132, 160, 161

state see national government

structural adjustment policies

case studies 83, 84, 86, 91

of donors 78, 12, 16, 168

in market enablement 1, 5, 1011

the poor affected 1011, 20, 97, 117

sub-Saharan Africa 11, 14, 32, 47, 52, 57, 149

subsidies 10, 13, 25, 46, 47, 4955, 147

Taiwan 49

Tanzania 135, 150

Thailand 66, 116, 135, 137

transitional economies 32, 148, 1501, 153, 159, 161

UK Department for International Development see DFID

UN-Habitat 4, 6, 18, 63, 105

unemployment 11, 201, 834, 170

UNICEF 98, 107

United Kingdom 110, 159

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) see UN-Habitat

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 5, 63

United States 7, 7980, 812

United States Agency for International Development see USAID

urban development

community participation 1718, 155, 156, 160, 1878, 199, 202

externalities 147, 14950, 152, 1545

land pooling/readjustment (LP/R) approach 1589

land use relationship 6, 29, 35, 153, 1856, 1919, 2001

local government policies 19, 36, 155, 157, 159, 1878, 190, 202

national government policies 5, 9, 1415, 17, 32, 14752, 154, 1601

at neighbourhood level 356, 185, 186, 190202

neo-liberalism affects 1, 154, 185, 186, 196, 198, 2012

parks and open spaces 35, 193, 1946, 199, 200, 201

in peri-urban space 30, 158

by the private sector 36, 82, 83, 1478, 154, 161, 188, 1906

public sector involvement 2, 14, 1718, 154, 155, 160, 161 see also local government; national government

requests for proposals (RFPs) 15960

residential areas see houses and housing

schools 35, 49, 189, 1968, 199, 201, 202

shops and shopping centres 356, 176, 186, 1889, 1934, 199, 201

spatial development 9, 1718, 30, 35, 1857, 1918, 199

technocratic responses 2, 188, 199

urban planning 12, 19, 147, 186, 18792, 1946, 197, 199202

urbanization 35, 20, 21, 185

USAID 26, 32, 54, 63, 81, 87, 97, 151

USSR 5960, 1489, 151

Washington consensus 7, 66, 68

welfare

capability approach 25, 423, 46, 50, 612, 65, 67

economic growth relationship 234, 42, 578, 124, 125, 164

of households 42, 43, 60, 65

housing provision relationship 246, 456, 150, 153, 1645, 166, 1689, 1723

vs market enablement 26, 33, 77, 78, 124, 133, 137, 16382

World Bank

conditional aid 63, 64, 151, 152, 168

in economic crises 67, 45

housing finance 32, 46, 47, 53, 54, 623, 645, 168

infrastructure supply involvement 65, 97, 99

international housing policy 635, 66, 67

on land tenure security 30, 31, 133, 134

on market enablement 45, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1415, 16, 151

on the rural–urban interface 29, 30, 126, 127

sites-and-services projects 53, 63, 64, 97

squatter settlement upgrades 63, 645, 66, 107

structural adjustment and lending policies (SALs) 78, 10, 12, 16, 168

urban management programmes 16, 19

Zambia 1314

ZEIS programmes, Brazil 34, 129, 164, 172, 1748, 179