Index – Peter F. Drucker on Nonprofits and the Public Sector

INDEX

abandonment

candidates, and MBO, 86

inability, and non-performance, 162164

adversary relations, Japan, 176

aesthetics, Japan, 192197

Alliance for Progress, 68

allocation of resources, and MBO, 88

Altmeyer, Arthur, 161

Aluminium Corporation of Canada, 71

American Medical Association, 110

American Power Co., 23

Andean Pact, 72

animal painting, Japan, 185

anticipating, and planning technology, 4043

antitrust bias, and science, 147149

Aquinas, Thomas, 202

Argyris, Chris, 102

art. See Japan

assembly line, beginnings, 101102

automation, social impacts, 5254

automobile industry

and MITI, Japan, 169171

unions, U.S. versus Japan, 176177

Autumnal Ivy Leaves with Bamboo (Kōrin), 187

Avery, Sewell, 131132

Bacon, Francis, 152

banking, productivity increase, 9

benefits, and part-time older workers, 134135

Bethlehem Steel Corp., 100

bird painting, Japan, 185186

birth control, and environment, 34

blacks, on boards of directors, 122

board of directors

constituency representatives, 120123

focus on trivia, 111112

functions, 115118

impotence, 109111

and management, 115116

membership, 119123

organization, 112115

responsibilities, 118

as window on world, 118

boss, and scientific management, 100

Boulding, Kenneth, 57

brain drain, and educational policy,

developing countries, 85

Brazil, multinationals in, 62

Bretton Woods Conference,

and Bancor, 17

British Health Service, 82, 158

Brown, Jerry, 110

Bruening, Heinrich, 181

Buddhism, in Japan, 194195

Budget Reform Act (1974), 87

Bunchō, Tani, 187, 201

Bunraku, 203

bureaucracy, and MBO, 80; See also government; public service organizations

business. See also industry

and law of diminishing productivity of capital, 47

and technology, 3740

businessman, as manager of technology, 4445

California, University of, student on Board of Regents, 110

Cameralists, 4

Canada, development, and foreign capital, 6566, 6768

capital

absorptive capacity, 66

foreign, and development, 6568

law of diminishing productivity of, 47

and productivity, 13

capital formation

and cost of capital, 13

decline, 10

and Keynesian economics, 2

and Mercantilism, 4

capital markets, polycentric, 73

career paths, multiple, 141

Casals, Pablo, 197, 199

Ceylon, malaria and pesticides, 33

Chase Manhattan Bank, 72

Chikamatsu Monzaemon, 203

Chikutō, Nakabayashi, 199

Child Holding a Spray of Flowers (Sōtatsu), 187

children, upbringing, Japan, 189

Chinese painting, versus Japanese, 192194

church, performance measurement, 88

co-determination, and board of directors, 112, 120

commitment, and MBO, 92

communications, and concentration of goals, 84

computers

and impact of technology, 5253

and monitoring need, technology, 54

technology and lead time, 44

Comte, Auguste, 59

conflict of interests, and board of directors, 120

conglomerates, and antitrust, 147148

conscience, as board of directors role, 116117

consensus, decision by, Japan, 92

constituency representatives, board of directors, 120123

consumer demand, in Keynesian economic theory, 11

control, of multinational branches, 7475

corporations, pension fund ownership, 121

cost

of capital, and capital formation, 13

of cleaning environment, paying, 2324

Credit Anstalt, Austria, 110

Daruma, 197199

DDT

and environment, 33

and impact of technology, 5051

and technology monitoring need, 5455

decision

by consensus, Japan, 92

and MBO, 95

demand, and technology, 4142

dependency ratio, and retirement, 128129

Deutsche Geschichte in Neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Schnabel), 59

developing countries. See also multinationals

educational policy and priorities, 85

and environment, 3132

and extractive industries, 62, 63

importance of foreign resources and capital to, 6568

dissent, informed, and MBO, 9091

Doering, Otto, 101

domestic-content policy, developing countries, 69

Du Pont Co., 79, 174

early warning system, on technology impacts, 56

economic policy, Japan, 168171

economics

approaches to next, 1718

Classic, 5

Keynesian influence on, 13

and macro-economy, 16

Mercantilism, 4

and micro-economics, 1416

and national government, 1718

Neo-Classic, 5

and Physiocrats, 3, 45

rational expectations school, 2

and Theory of Value, 5, 1920

economist, and technology, 57

economist-king, and Keynesian economic policy, 12

economy. See also economics; world economy and productivity, Taylor’s view, 103104

Edison, Thomas Alva, 40, 44

education

and environmental crisis, 26

on environmental needs, 35

explosion, and estrangement of science and industry, 151152

policy and priorities, developing countries, 85

and university board of directors, 111112, 113, 117

effort, splintering, and non-performance, 158159

electrical industry, technology and lead time, 4445

employees

part-time, and retirement, 134136

relations with company, Japan, 176177

and scientific management, 103106

entropy, law of, 47

environment

crisis, and emphasis on growth and industrial output, 2427

and incentives to reach goals, 27

as issue in Japan, 173

paying costs of cleaning, 2324

and pesticides, 33

and punitive legislation, 27

and technology, 22

and Third World, 3132

and Union Carbide plant, 30

where to start cleanup, 3435

experience, failing to learn from, 161162

exporting, developing countries, 6970

extractive industries, and developing countries, 62, 63

feedback

and learning from experience, 162

and performance measurement, 8990

firm theory, and profit maximization, 14

Follett, Mary Parker, 91, 181

Ford, Henry, 101

Ford Motor Co.

and Edsel, 86

and seat belts, 56

foreign exchange, and developing countries, 69

foremanship, functional, 100, 106

Franklin National Bank, 110

Friedman, Milton, 7, 12

Friedrich, Caspar David, 202

functional foremanship, and scientific management, 100, 106

General Accounting Office, 87

goals

concentration, and communication, 84

MBO, 93

government. See also public service organizations

funding of research, 149150

doubts about science, 145

and MBO, 7981

multiplier impact of money, 67

and Next Economics, 1718

and science, 148

what objectives are and should be, 81

Great Depression, 7

growth, and environmental crisis, 2427

growth industry, and technology, 38

Growth rate, business, in developing countries, 63

guest workers, western Europe, 70

Gulf Oil Corp., 111

Gulick, Luther, 79

gypsy moth, and pesticides, 33

Haiku,185

Hakuin Ekaku, 196197, 198

Hanna, Mark, 181

Harrod, Roy, 8

Harvard University, Board of Overseers, 117

Headstart, 158159

health care, and environmental crisis, 26

Health, Education, and Welfare Department (HEW), 91

Herzberg, Frederick, 102

historians, and technology, 5859

A History of Technology (Singer), 58

Hōitsu, 187

Hoover, Herbert, 181

Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 186

hospital

board of directors, 113114

maternity ward performance measurement, 8889

what objectives are and should be, 8182

Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD), 91

human resources, and productivity, 13

Ickes, Harold, 91, 160, 161

Ieyasu, 188

import dependence, developing countries, 69

import substitution policy, developing countries, 69

in-and-out workers, and retirement, 137

individualism, in Japanese art, 184

industrialization, and Third World ecology, 3132

industrial output, and environmental crisis, 2427

industry.See also multinationals

dangers of science’s drift from, 152154

doubts about science, 145

estrangement of science from, 149152

fears, and technological innovation, 42

growth, and technology, 38

and human relations, Japan, 190

and inflation, 145146

taxes, and investment, 146147

inflation, and industry, 145146

informed dissent, and MBO, 9091

initiative, and scientific management, 98

inner city, costs, and environmental crisis, 26

innovation

anticipating and planning, 40

and business, 38

and productivity, 9

innovative organization, 4649

Input-Output Analysis, 3

International Monetary Fund, 17

invention

anticipating and planning, 40

heroic age of, 39

investment

in Keynesian economic theory, 10

and taxes, industry, 146147

Iwasaki, Yataro, 179

Japan

adherence to rules in, 177181

adversary relations in, 176

aesthetics, 192197

animal painting, 185

bird painting, 185186

Buddhism in, 194195

children’s upbringing, 189

versus China, painting, 192194

decision by consensus, 92

development, and foreign capital, 65

employee relations with company, 175177

human relations and industry, 190

individualism in art, 184

joint ventures in, 74, 75

landscape painting, 191193

Living National Treasure, 199

and myth of Japan Inc., 167168

national interest, and business policy, 171173

prepackaged technology, 153

retirement policy, 133134, 173

Shinto, 191192, 196

tensions and polarities, 188191

top management and relations, 174175

versus West, art, 200203

Zen concept of learning in, 197201

The Japanese (Reischauer), 202

Japanese Society (Nakane), 184

job descriptions, and MBO, 94

Johnson, Lyndon, 158

joint ventures, in Japan, 74, 75

judges, retirement standards for, 131

Kachōga painting, 185

Kanō school, 187, 200

Kanō Tanyū, 186, 198

Kantei, 188

Katsura Villa, 188

Kazan, Watanabe, 188

Kennedy tax cut, 11

key currency, and world economy, 17

Keynes, John Maynard, 67

and Bancor, 17

influence on today’s economics, 13

and Theory of Value, 1920

Keynesian economics, 1213

and technology, 57

Knapp, Georg Friedrich, 6

Knight, Frank, 15

knowledge work, and scientific management, 106107

knowledge workers, retirement standards, 130131

Kōrin, Ogata, 187

Kranzberg, Melvin, 58

Labor Theory of Value, 5, 1920

Laffer curve, and Kennedy tax cut, 12n

Landes, David S., 59

landscape painting, Japan, 191192

language, Japan, ideographs and syllabaries, 189, 190

Lasswell, Harold, 166

lead time, and technology, 4445

learning, Zen concept of, 197201

legislative, punitive, and environment, 27

Lenin, V. I., 6

Leningrad, sewage, and pollution of Stockholm beaches, 28

Lerner, Abba, 8

Lilienthal, David, 159

Living National Treasure, in Japan, 199

Lockheed Aircraft Corp., 111, 115, 117

McGregor, Douglas, 102

Machiavelli, Niccolò, 181

McLuhan, Marshall, 202

macro-economics

and Kennedy tax cut, 11

and Keynes, 67

and Mercantilism, 4

and Next Economics, 16

malaria, and pesticides, 33

management. See also Management by Objectives (MBO); non-performance; productivity; scientific management

and board of directors, 115116, 117118

and innovative organization, 4749

Japanese women in, 173

what it is and should be, 9096

Management by Objectives (MBO), 7981. See also management; non-performance; productivity; scientific management

goal-setting, 93

and performance measurement, 8890

popularity in government, 7981

and priorities, 84

what management is and should be, 9096

what objectives are and should be, 8190

managers

from developing countries, training, 71

role in developing countries, 64

and technology, 39

of technology, businessmen as, 4445

March of Dimes, 164

Marcuse, Herbert, 59

Marietta, Ohio, and Union Carbide environmental pollution, 30

Marshall, Alfred, 1516

and Theory of Value, 1920

Marx, Karl, 56, 89

and law of diminishing productivity of capital, 47

and technology, 59

matrix organization, and scientific management, 100, 106

Mayo Medical Clinic, 101, 106

Medieval Technology and Social Change (White), 58

membership, board of directors, 119123

mental work, and scientific management, 106107

mercantilism, 4

micro-economics

and Classics versus Marxists, 56

and Kennedy tax cut, 11

and Next Economics, 1416

and Physiocrats, 45

middle management, and computers, 5253

Midvale Steel Co., 101

Mill, John Stuart, 5

Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan (MITI), 168

and automobile industry, 169171

Mitsubishi group, 175

Monet, Claude, 197

money

multiplier impact, and development, 6667

transnational, 17

Montgomery Ward Co., 132

Morgan, Arthur, 159

Morikage, Kusumi, 186

Moscow, air pollution, 28

motivation, and scientific management, 98

multinationals.See also Industry

assumptions about, 6162

board of directors, 113

extractive industries, 62, 63

global strategy, and developing countries, 6872

importance of developing countries to, 6264

multiplier effect of money, 67

and ownership of companies in developing countries, 7274

ownership versus control by, 7475

and world economy, 7577

multiplier, and productive resources, developing countries, 7071

multiplier impact, money, and development, 6667

Mumford, Lewis, 58

Mundell, Robert, 2, 16

Murasaki Shikibu, Lady, 203

Nakane, Chie, 184

Nanga school, 186, 187, 194

national economies, and world economy, 1617

National Health Service, British, 82, 158

national interest, and business policy, Japan, 171173

national sovereignty, and environmental pollution, 3132

Nestlé, 71

Nijō Castle, 188

Nobutada, Konoe, 199

non-performance. See also Management by Objectives (MBO); productivity

and assumption of immortality, 163164

and applying untested theories, 160161

and failing to learn from experience, 161162

and inability to abandon, 162164

and lofty objectives, 157158

and overstaffing, 159160

public service organizations, lack of concern about, 165166

and splintering effort, 158159

Northrup Corp., 111

objectives. See also Management by Objectives (MBO)

lofty, and non-performance, 157158

what they are and should be, 8190

Office of Technology Assessment, 50, 54

Okyo, Maruyama, 186

organization

board of directors, 112115

innovative, 4649

structure, and MBO, 9495

overstaffing, and non-performance, 159160

ownership, of multinational branches, 7475

paper industry, as technology prone, 41

Parsons, Talcott, 59

participation, and MBO, 93

part-time employees, and retirement, 134136

Penn Central Railroad, 110

pension funds, and corporate ownership, 121

pension plans

public sector, 138139

and retirement, 127

Pension Reform Act, 121

performance, measurement, and MBO, 8890

Perkins, Frances, 161

personality, development, and scientific management, 99

personnel decisions, and MBO, 94

pesticides, and environment, 33

pharmaceutical companies

profitability, and developing countries, 63

and regulation of new high-potency drugs, 56

physical resources, and productivity, 13

physical strain, and scientific management, 99

Physiocrats, 3, 45

planning, and anticipating technology, 4043

polarities, and tension, Japan, 188191

police department, what objectives are and should be, 8283

pollution, and technology, 22

population explosion

and technology, 51

and wire screen, 22, 51

posteriorities, and timing of priorities, 8586

poverty areas, and environmental crisis, 26

power companies, and regulation to cut air pollution, 55

prediction, difficulty of, 5354

Principles of Scientific Management (Taylor), 99

priorities, and MBO, 8487

private flying boom, prediction of, 5152

production, deemphasis, and unemployment, 2526

production factors

and Next Economics, 13

and productivity, 13

productive facilities, developing countries, 69

productivity, 89. See also management; Management by Objectives (MBO); non-performance; scientific management

and economic value, 20

and economy, Taylor’s view, 103104

and environmental crisis, 26

and Keynesian economics, 2

and Mercantilism, 4

and production factors, 13

and scientific management, 100101

and underdevelopment, 65

professional board members, 123

profit, 14, 15

and cost of cleaning environment, 2324

profitability, pharmaceutical industry, in developing countries, 63

profit maximization, and Theory of Firm, 14

public sector employees, retirement, 138139

public service organizations. See also government

assumptions of immortality, and non-performance, 163164

failure to set attainable goals, and non-performance, 165

measurement of performance, 8890

popularity of MBO in, 7981

priorities and posteriorities in, 84

quality of life, and scientific management, 102103

rate of return on investment, and innovative organization, 4849

Rathenau, Walter, 181

rational expectations school of economics, 2

Reischauer, Edwin O., 202

relations, and top management, Japan, 174175

resources

allocation, and MBO, 88

and concentration of goals, 84

responsibility

attitude of, 154156

board of directors, 118

for impact of technology, 4953

and MBO, 92

retirement

and in-and-out workers, 137

in Japan, 133134, 173

new problems, 129140

and part-time employees, 134136

policy changes, 125129

public sector employees, 138139

and rights of older people who stay on job, 132134

and second careers, 140141

setting standards for, 129132

and Social Security, 137138

Rimpa school, 186, 187

Robbins, Lionel, 9

Rockefeller, John D., and board of directors, 114

Roosevelt, F. D., 159, 160, 182

and board of directors, 114

Rosenblum, Robert, 202

Rosetsu, Nagasawa, 186, 198, 201

Runge, Otto, 202

Rural Electrification Administration, 158

sales and profits, multinations in developing countries, 6263

Sanraku, Kanō, 187188

Sansō Collection, 187188

savings, in Keynesian economic theory, 1011

Say, J. B., 46

Say’s Law, 2, 10

Schnabel, Franz, 59

Schumpeter, Joseph, 9, 10, 14, 57

and Theory of Value, 1920

science

and antitrust bias, 147149

attitude of responsibility, 154156

dangers of drift from industry, 152154

doubts about, 143145

estrangement from industry, 149152

and tax effects and industrial investment, 146147

scientific management. See also management; Management by Objectives (MBO); productivity

and mental work, 106107

myths about, 97

principles, 98100

and productivity, 100102

and quality of life, 102103

and worker, 103106

Scientific Revolution, Keynesian, and productivity, 9

Sears, Roebuck & Co., 72, 101 mission, 88

second careers, and retirement, 140141

self-control, and MBO, 93

Sengai, Gibon, 189190, 201

senility, and retirement, 131

services and activities, candidates for abandonment, 86

sewage treatment, and technology, 22, 25

Shackle, G.L.S., 15

Shapiro, Irving, 174

Shibuzawa, Eiichi, 172, 173, 179180

Shijō school, 186

Shinto, 191192, 196

Shop Management (Taylor), 98

Siemens, 39, 40, 44

Sierra Club, 25

Simpson’s of Canada, 72

Singer, Charles, 58

Sloan, Alfred P. Jr., 79

Social Security, and retirement, 127, 137138

Society for the History of Technology, 58

Sociologists, and technology, 59

Sōtatsu, Tarawaya, 187188

Soviet Union, prepackaged technology, 153

Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), 17

and multinationals, 76

stagflation, 1011

standards, for retirement, 129132

steel industry, as technology prone, 41

Stockholm, beaches polluted by Leningrad sewage, 28

strategies, and MBO, 88

strip mining, and environment, 23

structure

of innovative organization, 49

and MBO, 9495

success, and environmental crisis, 28

supply

and government deficits, 11

and Mercantilism, 4

and Next Economics, 13

survivors, and retirement, 128

targets, and MBO, 87

“Task Study” (Taylor), 9

taxes, and investment, industry, 146147

Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 9

and scientific management, 97107

teamwork, and scientific management, 101

Technics and Civilization (Mumford), 58

technology

anticipating and planning, 4043

and business, 3740

and difficulty of prediction, 5354

and environment, 22

history of, 5759

and innovative organization, 4649

need for monitoring, 5456

pace of, 4445

prepackaged, 153

responsibility for impact of, 4953

Technology and Culture, 58

Technology in Western Civilization (Kranzberg and Pursell), 58

Technology, Management & Society (Drucker), 58

The Temple Bell at Dōjō-ji (Rosetsu), 201

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 159

tension and polarities, Japan, 188191

thermal pollution, and power plants, 24

Third World.See developing countries

time, and productivity, 13

timetables, and MBO, 87

top executives. See also board of directors; management

and relations, Japan, 173175

retirement for, 131132

totalitarian regimes, and economics, 3

Transportation Department, 91

Two Wagtails (Sanraku), 187

underdevelopment, and productivity, 65

under-saving, and Keynesian economics, 10

understanding, and MBO, 90 unemployment

and environment, tradeoff, 28

and part-time older workers, 135136

and production deemphasis, 25

and retirement, 126

Union Carbide Corp., environmental pollution, 30

unions, Japan, 171172, 176177

United Nations, and environmental pollution, 32

U.S. Steel Corp., 101

university, board of directors, 111112, 113, 117

Unsen, Kushiro, 187

Value, Theory of, 5, 1920

Veblen, Thorstein, 149

Verne, Jules, 41, 54

vesting, of public service pensions, 138139

Vienna, West Virginia, and Union Carbide environmental pollution, 30

Volkswagen, 121122

wages

and productivity, 101

and scientific management, 98

Wallace, Henry, 92

Walras, Leon, 5

Wareware Nihon-jin, 191, 192

War on Poverty, 158, 160, 162

water pollution, and technology, 22

Weber, Max, 59

White, Lynn Jr., 58

wire mesh screen, and population explosion, 22, 51

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 7

women in management, Japan, 173

woodblock print, 196197

workers. See employees

world economy, 1617

industry and antitrust bias in, 147149

and multinationals, 7577

WPA, 161

Wright Brothers, 40

Yin T’o-lo, 196

Zaibatsu, 185

Zen concept of learning, Japan, 197201