Index – Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites

Index

A

acid functionalisation, 517, 634–5
acid treatment, 518, 536–7
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 498
activation energy, 223
acylation-esterification, 75–6
Advanced Rheometric Expansion System, 579
agglomerate area ratio, 106, 108, 112, 115, 122, 266
vs applied shear stress, 109
vs interfacial energy, 107
vs mixing energy, 113
vs mixing speed
PC composites with 1 wt% Baytubes C150 HP, 112
vs mixing time, 114
vs volume resistivity, 115
agglomerate breakage, 94
agglomeration, 94, 95, 176–9, 304–7
build-up and destruction modelling, 307–8
primary agglomeration, 304–5
example of remaining primary agglomerates, 305
influence of melt mixing, 304
secondary agglomeration, 305–7
insulator-conductor transition for injection-moulded polycarbonate plates with MWNT, 307
TEM from polycarbonate/MWNT plates with 0.6 vol.% MWNT, 306
aggregation, 632–3
Al2O3, 624
alumina–CNT nanocomposites, 693
alveolar wall thickening, 627
amidation, 75–6
amine treatment, 518
ammonium polyphosphate (APP)
synergism with carbon nanotubes, 736–9
Andor CCD camera, 558
antennas, 340–1
arc discharge method, 403
area ratio See agglomerate area ratio
argon plasma, 34
Arrhenius activation energy, 238
Arrhenius equation, 223
asbestos
vs carbon nanotubes, 624–8
before and after agate milling, 626
characteristics of multiwalled CNT, 628
aseptic loosening, 679
ASTM D256, 160, 161, 181
ASTM D257, 581
ASTM D638, 160, 161
ASTM D790, 161
ASTM E662, 721
ASTM E 1354, 723
Atlas Mini-Max mixer, 526
atom transfer radical polymerisation, 66–8, 349
Atomic Force Microscope, 400
atomic force microscopy, 546, 779
Avrami model, 529

B

β-scission, 497
Bacillus subtilis, 628
backbiting reaction, 497
batch compounding, 101–18
Bayblend, 298, 312, 321
Baytubes, 311
Baytubes C150HP, 103, 104, 108, 112, 606, 612, 614
biomaterials
carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites, 676–708
bioactivity, 703–6
biosensors, 701–3
dental restorative materials, 695–6
dentistry, 693–5
denture-based resin, 697–9
load-bearing implants, 686–93
monitoring biological systems, 699–701
nanomaterials in medicine, 680–6
occupational exposure regulation, 706–
oral cancer targeted drug delivery, 699
orthopaedic implants, 677–80
periodontal dentistry, 696–7
biosensors, 701–3
FET nanobiosensor, 702
blue asbestos See crocidolite
Boolean model, 277
Brillouin scattering, 401
bronchial epithelial cells, 623
bronchoalveolar lavage examination, 625
Brownian diffusion, 316
‘bundle design, ’ 756
BUSS Ko-kneader, 755

C

capillary rheology, 169
carbon black, 331, 336 See also carbon nanoparticles (CNP)
carbon nanomaterials, 623–4
carbon nanoparticles (CNP), 770, 782
carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites
biomedical/bioengineering applications, 676–708
bioactivity of CNTs, 703–6
biomaterials and implants, 676–7
biosensors, 701–3
CNTs in dentistry, 693–5
CNTs in periodontal dentistry, 696–7
dental restorative materials, 695–6
denture-based resin, 697–9
load bearing implants for orthopaedic applications, 686–93
for monitoring biological systems, 699–701
nanomaterials in medicine, 680–6
occupational exposure regulation, 706–7
orthopaedic implants, 677–80
targeted oral cancer drug delivery, 699
carbon nanotube composites, 332–42
EM shielding composites, 336–40
EM wave absorbing material, 332–6
other electromagnetic applications, 340–2
carbon nanotube conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPC), 760–95
basic concepts, 761–9
conduction in CPCs, 762–3
different types of conduction, 764
influence parameters on percolation threshold, 762
multi-walled carbon nanotubes entangled bundles, 763
percolation, 761–2
CNT composite architecture design, 772–5, 776
co-continuous CPC nanocomposites, 773
2D layer-by-layer sprayed aPS-AuNP transducer, 775
hierarchical double-percolated PC-2wt% CNT structure, 776
layer-by-layer assembly and hierarchical architecture, 774–5
segregated network of MWNT in UHMWPE matrix, 773
triple percolated CPC 50, 774
volume exclusion and segregated networks, 772–4
CNT composite transducers’ characterisation, 775–80, 781
current profile and amplitude profile for PMMA–CNT composites, 781
current/voltage curves for PMMA–CNT transducers, 778
electrical characterisation, 776–8
filler content influence on sprayed PC–CNT transducers, 778
morphological characterisation, 779–80
PC–CNT composite on mica, 780
percolation curve evolution with synthesis route, 777
PMMA–CNT transducers fitting parameters, 779
stirring speed influence on epoxy–CNT percolation curve, 777
formulation for sensing, 769–72
CNT-filled CPC commutation temperatures, 771
fillers, 769–70
matrices, 770–2
PCL-g-CNT
response evolution, 791
response to tetrahydrofurane in nitrogen, 790
transducers relative amplitude, 791
sensing principle, 763–9
chemo-electrical behaviour, 767
CNT publications per year (1991–2007), 769
diffusion mode according to Langmuir–Henry-clustering model, 768
piezo-electrical behaviour, 766
positive/negative strain coefficient effect, 765–6
positive/negative temperature coefficient effect, 765
positive/negative vapour coefficient effect, 766–9
thermo-electrical behaviour, 765
sensing properties and applications, 780–94
chemical sensing with CNT-filled CPC, 788–94
CNT grafting by in-situ polymerisation of poly(ε-caprolactone), 789
combination of CPC responses using PCA for vapour identification, 793
crack healing demonstration, 786
EP/CF composites fibre fracture damage sensitivity, 784
liquid sensing cycling with PP/(PCL-3%CNT) film transducers, 793
PP/(PCL-CNT) textiles possible application, 784
PTC effect depending on external matrix with PCL-3% CNT conducting phase, 783
remote measurement of strain inside human body with PLLA-5wt% CNT, 787
sensing instrumentation, 781–2
strain sensing with CNT-filled CPCs, 785–8
temperature sensing with CNT-filled CPC transducers, 782–5
transducers’ fabrication, 769–80
carbon nanotube networks
formation in PET, 579–82
complex viscosity, storage modulus, Cole–Cole plots and inverse loss tangent variation, 580
volume resistivity variation, 581
carbon nanotube–polyolefin composites, 511–37
future trends, 537
mechanical properties, 518–26
illustration, 519–23
LDPE and HDPE elastic modulus, 524
polyolefin–CNT blends, 526–33
crystallinity, 526–30
electrical properties, 532–3
rheological properties, 530–2
processing methods, 512–18
CNT functionalisation to manipulate dispersion and properties, 517–18
compatabilizers use, 516–17
in-situ polymerisation, 513–14
melt spinning, 515–16
other methods, 516
shear mixing (melt processing), 514–15
solvent processing, 512–13
thermal conductivity, 533
isotropic SWNT–LDPE and SWNT–HDPE composites, 534
thermal degradation and flame-retardant properties, 534–7
oxidative degradation test specimens, 536
wear behaviour, 533
carbon nanotubes, 193–226, 331, 347, 428, 482
3 phr CNT dispersion characteristics
CNT:ethanol = 1:10, 198
dry mixed, with CNT:ethanol = 1:10, 197
area ratio vs mixing speed
PC composites with 1 wt% Baytubes C150 HP, 112
batch compounding using small-scale mixers, 101–18
area ratio vs applied shear stress, 109
area ratio vs interfacial energy, 107
area ratio vs mixing energy, 113
area ratio vs mixing time, 114
area ratio vs volume resistivity, 115
masterbatch dilution, 116–17
MWCNT agglomerate dispersion in different polymers, 107
MWCNT dispersability, 106–8
MWCNT dispersion quantification, 104
polycarbonate processing with MWCNT materials, 101–6
polycarbonate with 4 wt% MWCNT melt, 106
polycarbonate with CNT composites diluted from a masterbatch, 116
processing parameters on MWCNTs dispersion in polycarbonate, 112–15
relative change in area ratio vs mixing time, 114
secondary agglomeration effect, 117–18
bioactivity, 703–6
genotoxicity and mutagenicity, 705–6
interaction with immune system, 705
interference with bacterial uptake, 705
movement through the body, 706
biosensors, 701–3
FET nanobiosensor, 702
CNT functionalisation effect on epoxy–CNT composites, 232–4
continuous melt mixing using extruders, 118–27
dispersive screw configurations SC1 and SC2, 119
distributive screw configuration SC5, 120
distributive screw configurations SC3 and SC4, 119
electrical conductivity vs. filler content, 127
macrodispersion and the agglomerate size distribution, 123
masterbatch dilution, 125–7
masterbatches preparation, 118–25
MWCNT agglomerate size distribution, 124–5
MWCNT macro dispersion, 124
PCL composites with different MWCNT contents, 126
covalent functionalisation with polymers, 64–90
grafting-from methodology, 65–73
grafting-to methodology, 73–80
and dental restorative materials, 695–6
CNT and apatite, 696
in dentistry, 693–5
denture-based resin, 697–9
dispersion and distribution quantification using microscopy techniques, 265–91
future trends, 291
light microscopy, 269–76
section thickness, 267
spatial distribution of random point pattern, 268–9
transmission electron microscopy, 276–90
dispersion characteristics
natural rubber samples, 219
sample filled with 84 phr of silica and 6 phr of CNT, 219
elastomer, 193–226
electrical properties, 667–9
conductivity along alignment direction with increasing nanotube isotropy, 669
solid state effect on resistivity, 668
epoxy resins and CNT effects on curing systems, 232
factors influencing transfer and localisation, 609–11
peculiarities of agglomerates, 611
fire-retardant solutions development, 730–4
functionalisation for polymer nanocomposites, 55–81
general properties, 748–9
hybrid systems based on silica filler, 216–25
CNT on mechanical and electrical properties, 218
crack growth rate vs. tearing energy, 224
fracture mechanical investigation, 224–5
SBR/BR(70:30) composites stress–strain behaviour, 218
styrene/butadiene with silica and addition of CNT, 217
temperature-dependent conductivity, 223
impact on heat release rate, 730–1
influence of material and processing parameters on polymer melts dispersion, 92–128
percolated and not percolated structures, 100
interaction with epoxy systems, 231–2
mechanical properties, 662–4
calculated effective mechanical contribution, 663
stress–strain curves for oriented PVA/SWNT, 664
melt mixing and filler dispersion, 94–7
particle adhesion categories, 95
particle size reduction, 96
monitoring biological systems, 699–701
cell labelling and tracking, 700–1
multiphase polymer blends, 587–616
current state of polymer–carbon nanotube technology, 588–95
future trends, 615–16
localisation of CNT during melt mixing, 595–611
selective localisation utilisation, 613–15
tailoring the localisation, 611–13
MWCNT incorporation in polycarbonates
different melt viscosities, 108–10
different molecular weights, 110–11
natural rubber
dielectric properties, 222
quasi-static stress–strain behaviour, 220
with silica partially exchanges against CNT, 217–23
strain-dependent storage modulus, 221
non-covalent functionalisation with polymers, 57–64
in-situ polymerisation, 57–60
nanohybrid shish-kebabs, 62–3
PE/MWNT-10, PE/MWNT-25, and PE/CNF NHSK structures, 63
polymer wrapping, 60–2
supercritical-CO2 technology, 63–4
transition from pull-out to fracture, 59
occupational exposure regulation, 706–7
orientation, 659–62
Raman spectra of the alignment of SWNTs, 660
SEM of MWNT, 661
in orthopaedics, 687–93
MWCNT–PMMA cement, 691
PCL masterbatches
agglomerate area ratio dependence on minimum residence time, 122
minimum residence time, 121
MWCNT dispersion and specific mechanical energy input, 126
in periodontal dentistry, 696–7
plasma chemical functionalisation, 38–44
emission current density and fluorescent photos, 42
liquid droplets, 39
MWCNT transformation process model, 41
radical addition yielding functional groups, 43
plasma post-discharge treatment, 44–8
Ar + N2 microwave discharge, 45
CNT with PCL islets, 47
polycaprolactone nanocomposites, 47
post-discharge chamber of Ar + N2 μ-wave plasma, 46
plasma treatment, 33–48
characteristics and principal applications, 33–5
overview, 33
plasma polymerisation, 37–8
plasma post-discharge treatment, 44–8
polycarbonate with 1 wt% MWCNT
external diameter distributions, 105
melt viscosity, 108
molecular weights, 110
optical micrographs, 93, 103
particle size distribution, 111
SEM images of MWCNT materials, 103
TEM images, 104
polyolefin composites by in-situ polymerisation, 3–22
processing, 195–202
3 phr CNT, 196
3 phr CNT dispersion characteristics, 197
CNT concentration in SBR/BR composites, 201
dispersion on quasi-static mechanical properties and frequency dependent conductivity, 199
elastomers dispersion characteristics, 195
polymer type variation, 195–7
predispersing solvents, 197–202
SBR/BR quasi-static stress–strain curves, 200
SBR/BR quasi-static stress–strain cycles, 203
sensing properties, 669–70
resistivity vs strain, 670
special affinity with silicone, 730–1
structure–property relationships, 202–10
dynamic-mechanical properties, 204–6
electrical transport processes, 206–9
mechanical properties, 202–4
percolation behaviour of AC resistivity, 209
percolation network based on CNTs, 207
SBR/BR dynamic-mechanical analysis, 205
SBR/BR strain dependency of the elastic modulus, 206
thermal transport processes, 209–10
surface chemistry and solution-based functionalisation, 25–33, 25–49
covalent sidewall functionalisation reactions, 32
end-caps and defect-sites chemistry, 27–30
functionalisation reactions at ends and defect-sites, 29
pyramidalisation angles, 31
sidewall functionalisation, 30–3
surface etching, 36–7
MWNTs before and after Ar microwave plasma treatment, 36
MWNTs before and after MMA plasma polymerisation treatment, 38
nodular and untreated CNT, 37
synergism with ammonium polyphosphate (APP), 736–9
synthesis and purification, 749
systems with ionic liquids for increased coupling activity, 210–16
conductivity on the volume fraction of CNT, 214
ionic liquids chemical structures, 211
S-SBR/BR dynamic-mechanical properties, 215–16
SBR/BR matrix loaded with 3 phr CNTs, 212–13
tailoring the localisation, 611–13
targeted drug delivery for oral cancer, 699
theoretical approach to reinforcement efficiency, 665–7
failure of polymer matrix reinforced with SWNT, 666
stress–strain curve for a PE and SWNT, 665
SWNT composite strengths, 666
toxicity and regulatory perspectives, 621–47
CNT toxicity, 628–9
CNT toxicology vs other particulate materials, 623–4
CNT vs asbestos, 624–8
future biological applications, 643–4
future trends, 644–7
public perception and ‘risk-versus-reward’ debate, 621–3
toxicity parameters, 630–43
Cauchy-Born Rule, 388
cell labelling, 700–1
CF4 plasma treatment, 38
characteristic frequency, 208
chemical functionalisation, 26
chemical vapour deposition, 403, 430, 659
chemiluminescence, 534
chemorheology, 234–40
Di Benedetto’s equation, 237–8
glass transition temperature and degree of cure, 235
kinetic model, 235–6
kinetic model determination, 234–5
rheological model, 235, 238–40
chemoviscosity, 238
chitosan, 347, 349, 364
cholesterol-end-capped poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (CPMPC), 633
cisplatin, 699
Clausius-Duhem inequality, 378
Cloisite 30B, 740
cold plasma, 33
Cole-Cole functions, 208
Cole-Cole plot, 462, 579–80
modified, 432, 446
colloidal suspension, 299
compatabilizing agents, 516
condensation polymerisation, 70–2
conductive and viscoelastic filler network, 317–21
electrical and rheological properties, 317–18
shear-induced insulator-conductor, 318
shear rate dependence and dynamic filler network, 318–21
stationary values for DC conductivity, 320
time evolution of electrical conductivity, 319
conductive composites, 336
conductive filler network, 312–17
shear induced destruction and conductivity recovery, 312–15
temperature dependence of the conductivity recovery, 314
time-dependent conductivity measurements, 313
steady shear conditions, 315–16
conductivity of MWNT/PC melts measured during steady shear and quiescent annealing, 316
time-dependent conductivity measurements, 315
steady state network, 316–17
cone calorimetry, 722–3
cone calorimeter curve, 723
cone calorimeter set-up, 722
continuous melt mixing, 118–27
continuum mechanics, 378
controlled/living radical polymerisation (CLRP), 66–8
conventional free radical polymerisation, 65–6
Coulomb, 299
covalent grafting, 26, 64
covariance, 280
Cox-Merz rule, 456, 603
CPC sensor, 764
CPC transducer, 764
crocidolite, 624, 630
crystallinity, 568
crystallisation temperature, 6, 14
curing systems
epoxy resins and CNTs, 232
degree of cure of the reaction, 233
Curv, 658
cycloaddition, 74–5

D

D Raman band, 403
DACA, 304
microcompounder, 101
Decalin, 512
defect functionalisation, 487
defect-site chemistry, 27–30
degrees of dispersion, 104
dentistry, 693–5
CNTs and adhesion to tooth substance, 694–5
dental restorative materials, 695–6
CNTs and apatite, 696
denture-based resin, 697–9
periodontal dentistry, 696–7
SEM images of ACM 10, 698
design of experiment, 162
Di Benedetto’s equation, 237–8
diamond anvil cell (DAC), 406
differential scanning calorimetry, 234–5, 550, 596
digital image processing
light microscopy, 271–5
transmission electron microscopy, 281–90
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A-based epoxy resin (DGEBA), 231, 234
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, 624
dipole polarisations, 333–4
direct electronic impact, 45
Dirichlet boundary conditions, 384
discontinuous damage test, 202
dispersion, 93, 133
of carbon nanotubes, quantification using microscopy techniques, 265–91
future trends, 291
light microscopy, 269–76
transmission electron microscopy, 276–90
dispersion index analyzing system, 195
displacement-controlled boundary conditions See Dirichlet boundary conditions
dissociative recombination, 45
dodecylbenzenesulfonate-doped poly(pyrrole) (DBS-PPy), 792
double-walled carbon nanotubes, 11
dynamic deformation, 205
dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), 21, 353
dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), 413
dynamic percolation, 306
dynamic shear rheology, 579
Dyneema, 657

E

ε-caprolactam, 350
Echelle spectrograph, 558
effective fibre, 391
elastomer
carbon nanotubes composites, 193–226
hybrid systems based on silica filler, 216–25
ionic liquids for increased coupling activity, 210–16
processing, 195–202
structure–property relationships, 202–10
electrical conductivity, 254–6, 295, 303, 311
electrical percolation threshold, 439
electrical resistivity, 161, 179–88
electrical transport, 206–9
electromagnetic interference (EMI), 336, 532
electromagnetic properties
electromagnetic shielding CNT composites, 336–40
absorption, reflection and multiple reflections within a thin slab, 337
multiple reflection occurring between a CNT wall, 340
electromagnetic wave absorbing CNT composites, 332–6
CNT system, 334
EM wave propagation through a thin slab, 333
MWCNT real and imaginary permittivity vs frequency, 335
other CNT composites’ electromagnetic applications, 340–2
polymer–carbon nanotube composites, 329–42
EM wave reflection, transmission and absorption through a medium, 330
electromagnetic shielding (SE), 336
electronic displacement polarisation, 333
electronic nose (e-nose), 764, 794
electronic tongue (e-tongue), 764, 793–4
electrospinning, 662, 686
EN 13501–2, 722
EN 13823, 722
end-caps, 27–30
EPDM–CNT, 194
EpiDerm FT, 639
epidermal growth factor, 699
epoxy–carbon nanotube composites, 230–56
chemorheological analysis, 240–52
calorimetric test in isothermal and dynamic conditions, 242
chemorheological model for DGEBA-1% MWNTs, 249
chemorheological model for DGEBA-1% MWNTs functionalised, 251
chemorheological model parameters, 246–7, 249, 252
DGEBA–MWNT, 247
diglycidyl ether bisphenol-A–doublewalled carbon nanotube mixture (DGEBA–DWNT), 241–7
epoxy-SWNT functionalised and non-functionalised mixture, 247–51
experimental data vs chemorheological model, 246
experimental data vs kinetic model, 245
kinetic model for DGEBA–1%MWNTs, 248
kinetic model for DGEBA–1%MWNTs functionalised, 250
maximum reaction rate and reaction peak temperature for isothermal and dynamic tests, 244
rheological measurements, 243
time onsets for isothermal rheological tests, 244
chemorheological approach, 234–40
Di Benedetto’s equation, 237–8
glass transition temperature and degree of cure, 235
kinetic model, 235–6
kinetic model determination, 234–5
rheological model, 235, 238–40
experimental materials and methods, 231–4
CNT and epoxy systems interactions, 231–2
CNT functionalisation effects, 232–4
effects on curing systems, 232
future trends, 256
properties, 252–6
chemorheological model for DGEBA–1%SWNTs non-functionalised, 254
electric and dielectric behaviour, 254–6
kinetic model for DGEBA–1%SWNTs non-functionalised, 253
parameters of chemorheological model for DGEBA–MDEA and DGEBA–1%SWNTs non-functionalised, 255
thermal and mechanical properties, 252–4
equivalent continuum, 383–7
molecular RVE model, 383
erosion-dominant mechanism, 115
Escherichia coli, 628
ethylene-co-vinyl acetate
flammability, 749–50
peak of heat release rate, 751
synergistic effect reducing crack density, 752
ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber, 194
ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer composites, 501
Euroclass standards, 721, 725–7
simplified classification, 727

F

FAR part 25, 721
FEI Tecnai F20, 552
fibres, 516
filler dispersion, 94–7
filler prelocalisation method, 532
finite element analysis, 379
fire-resistant paint, 742–3
fire-resistant solutions, 718
fire-retardant applications
Euroclass standards, 725–7
fire issues, 718–20
dangerous features, 719
features that can delay fire progress, 719–20
fire scenario, 719
fireproof requirements as function of means of transport, 720
fire protection mechanisms, 727–30
combustion cycle, 728
decomposition, 728
intumescent char layer, 730
intumescing systems, 729–30
fire-retardant solutions, 718, 730–4
CNTs on heat release rate, 730–1
development using CNTs, 730–4
influence of CNT dispersion quality, 731–2
protective layer and shield phenomenon, 732–4
protective layer formation, 732–3
shield phenomenon, 733–4
fire-retardant solutions development, 730–4
CNTs on heat release rate, 730–1
degradation route of polymers, 734
influence of CNT dispersion quality, 731–2
protective layer and shield phenomenon, 732–4
flame-retardant properties characterisation tests, 722–5
cone calorimetry, 722–3
limit of oxygen index, 723–4
UL94 tests, 724–5
improvement barrier effect and synergism, 718–44
intumescent systems, 736–9
regulations and standards, 720–2
test FMVSS302 description, 721
synergism, 734–9
unfilled EVA and Eva -based nanocomposites
cone calorimeter HRR vs time, 731
thermogravimetric analysis curves under air flow, 733
flame-resistant coatings, 739–43
cable fire test, 743
fire-resistant paint, 742–3
special affinity between CNTs and silicone, 739–42
flame-retardant cable applications
cable with MWCNT–organoclay–ATH flame-retardant system, 752–8, 754–8
blends of MWCNTs and organoclays in cable compound formulations, 754
different insulated wire mounting designs for cone calorimeter tests, 756
carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites, 748–52, 753, 754
carbon nanotubes properties, 748–9
charred MWCNT crack density and surface results, 750–1
LDPE compounds flammability, 751–2
LDPE filled with different MWCNTs, 753
PDE filled with SWCNTs, 753
poly(EVA–MWCNT) compounds and EVA–MWCNT–organoclay compounds flammability, 749–50
synthesis and purification, 749
heat release rate
bundle design, 757
cable compound 2A with filler blend by twin-roll mill and BUSS Ko-kneader, 755
compounds made by twin-roll mill with different filler blends, 755
single layer design, 757
polymer–carbon nanotube composites, 746–58
flash-over, 718, 746
flocculation See secondary agglomeration
Flory-Huggins parameter, 69, 790
fluorination, 31
fluoronanotubes, 31
FMVSS302, 721
Fourier band pass filter, 281
Fournier equation, 303, 308
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 554–8
band assignment for the infrared spectrum of PET and PET/10 wt% MWCNT composite, 556
FTIR spectra of PET, MWCNTs and PET/MWCNT composites, 555
plot normalised intensities of FTIR peaks, 557
Friedel-Crafts acylation, 549
full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), 668

G

γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APS), 783
G Raman bands, 403, 406
gap distances, 208
gas discharge plasmas, 34
generalised effective medium theory, 303
geometric-mean equation, 596–7
geometrical percolation threshold, 439
glass transition temperature, 235, 237, 565, 596
‘GoodNanoGuide’ project, 707
grafting-from methodology, 65–73
condensation polymerisation, 70–2
synthesising hyperbranched poly(ureaurethane) s-grafted MWNTs, 71
controlled/living radical polymerisation, 66–8
conventional free radical polymerisation, 65–6
other polymerisation methods, 72–3
ring-opening polymerisation, 68–70
PA6–SWNT composites synthesis, 78
PLLA–MWNT and PLLA–MWNT-g-PLLA composites, 69
SEM cross-sectional fracture images of PA6–SWNT, 79
grafting-to methodology, 73–80
acylation-esterification/amidation of CNT-bound carboxyl groups, 75–6
condensation between oxidised CNTs and polymers, 77–80
PVA–MWNT-g-PVA films, 77
cycloaddition of polymers to CNTs, 74–5
macromolecular radical coupling, 73–4
heating of TEMPO-end-capped P2VP chains, 73
granuloma, 625, 631
Guth–Gold–Smallwood equation, 203

H

Haake Minilab Rheomex CTW5, 431
Haake rheometer, 551
half-time of crystallisation, 14
harmonic-mean equation, 596–7
Haversian systems, 683–4
heat release rate, 723
impact of carbon nanotubes, 730–1
Hi-Res TGA 2950, 577
High Density Polyethylene, 430
high shear extruder (HSE), 135–6
first and second generation, 136
high-shear processing
homopolymer–CNTs composites, 139–46
SEM images of SBBS–CNTs nanocomposites, 140
polymer–carbon nanotube composites, 133–52
future trends, 151–2
polymer blends–CNTs, 146–51
polymer nanoblends, 136–9
TEM images of PC–PMMA, 137
TEM images of PVDF–PA11, 137
UV–vis transmittance spectra of pure PC, PMMA, and PC–PMMA blends, 138
PVDF–PA6–CNTs composites
electrical conductivity, 150
high-shear-processed sample, 147–8
low-shear-processed sample, 149
morphological representations, 150
stress–strain curves, 151
hollow cathode glow discharge (HCGD), 43
Hooke’s law, 406
hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), 196
Hyperion nanotubes, 311

I

IEC 60 332–3, 721
IEC 60 332–1, 721, 756, 758
IL-6, 623
IL-8, 623
in-line measurements
during extrusion, 310
typical set-up for laboratory-scale experiment, 310
during injection moulding, 310–11
scheme of the mould, 311
in-situ polymerisation, 57–60
iPP/DWCNT composites
catalyst [Me2Si(2-Me-Ind)2]ZrCl2/MAO, 11
catalyst Me2Si(2-Me-4Ph-Ind)2ZrCl2/MAO, 12
polyethylene–CNT composites, 9–10
PE–MWCNT composites synthesis, 10
specific conductivity, 10
polyolefin carbon nanotube composites, 3–22
future trends, 21–2
polymer architecture by metallocene catalysis, 7–9
techniques, 5–7
polypropylene–CNT composites, 11–21
filler and the isothermal crystallisation temperature, 19
iPP–DWCNT composites, 11
isotactic PP–CNT composites, 11–15
properties, 17–21
propylene polymerisation, 16
sPP–MWNT composites, 18
syndiotactic PP–CNT composites, 15–17
in vitro cytotoxicity screen, 636
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, 639
injection moulding, 156–9
analysis, 165–88
3 wt% PC–CNT volume and surface resistivities, 182
conditions, 180
electrical resistivity, 179–88
main effects of parameters, 165–9
Makrolon 2405 standard conditions, 181
Makrolon 2205 volume and surface resistivity values, 167
nanotube agglomerates in composites, 176–9
PC shear viscosity vs shear rate, 174
steady-state rheological analysis, 169–76
surface defects index, 172
tolerance for normalised main effect slopes calculation, 167
experiment design and materials, 159–64
27−k fractional factorial DOE, 163
27−k fractional factorial DOE lower and upper level values, 164
design of experiments, 161–4
injection-moulded Izod test bar, 161
materials and methods, 159–61
parameters and setpoint values, 162
polycarbonates, 160
Makrolon 2205 agglomerates
3 wt% PC–CNT, 178
different CNT loading, 177
different injection melt temperatures, 179
Makrolon 2405 PC–CNT volume and surface resistivities
vs injection back pressure, 185
vs injection hold pressure, 186
vs injection hold pressure time, 187
vs injection melt temperature, 183
vs injection mould temperature, 188
vs injection plasticising speed, 189
vs injection speed, 184
vs wt% CNT loading, 181
parameters
pinholes and spots surface defects formation, 172
volume and surface resistivities, 167
vs surface defect, pinholes index, and ρ, 170
vs surface defect, spots index, and ρ, 171
vs surface resistivity, 168
vs volume resistivity, 166
PC and PC–CNT shear viscosity vs shear rate
3 wt% and 15 wt%, 173
different CNT loading, 175
polymer–carbon nanotubes composites, 155–91
injection speed, 184
inkjet printing technique, 792
insulator–conductor transition, 303, 306
interface polarisation, 334
interfacial shear strength, 546
intermolecular transfer reaction, 497
interstitial fibrosis, 627
interstitial granuloma, 625
intumescence, 729
intumescent systems, 729–30
char layer, 730
synergism between ammonium polyphosphate and CNTs, 736–9
images of char layer surface after burning test, 739
images of PP–APP blend and PP–APP–CNT blend surface, 738
polypropylene, 737–9
thermoplastic polyurethane, 736–7
invariance of rotation, 280
invariance of translation, 280
ion bombardment, 40
ionic liquids, 210–16
chemical structures, 211
ionic polarisations, 333
iPP–MWCNT composites
dynamic mechanical measurements, 21
TEM micrograph, 13
iPP–SWCNT nanocomposites, 18
ISO 2685, 742
ISO 3795, 721
ISO 4589, 723
ISO 5660, 721
ISO Standard 10993, 676
isotactic PP–CNT composites, 11–15
isothermal crystallisation, 565–8
DSC crystallisation and melting isotherms for PET–MWCNT composites, 567
PET and PET–MWCNT composites DSC characteristics, 568
PET glass transition temperature change, 565
isothermal measurements, 526

J

JAR part 25, 721

K

Keithley 8009 resistivity test fixture, 581
Keithley 6517A electrometer, 581
Kelly-Tyson model, 420
Kevlar, 657
kinemetic boundary conditions, 384
kinetic model, 235–6
thermosetting systems, 236
Kissinger method, 569, 576

L

lactate dehydrogenase, 623
Lactate Dehydrogenase assay, 636
Langmuir–Henry-clustering (LHC) model, 768
large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS), 461
laser scanning confocal microscopy, 779
layer-by-layer assembly, 774–5, 788, 792
LCR meter, 310
Leistritz ZSK-27 MAXX 48, 160
Lewis acids, 486, 499
Lexan 141R, 126
light microscopy, 269–76
degree of dispersion, 269–71
digital image processing and specific examples, 271–5
background correction procedure, 271
differently melt processed composites, 274
feature-based algorithm for segmentation of grey scaled micrographs, 272–3
section thickness evaluation, 275
limit of oxygen index (LOI), 723–4
schema, 724
linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), 353–4, 486, 489, 491
London–van der Waals, 299
Lotus Effect, 596
low-density polyethylene (LDPE)
carbon nanotube compounds flammability, 751–2
filled with different MWCNTs, 753
heat release rate
MWCNTs in LDPE, 754
SWCNTs in LDPE, 753

M

m-Xylene, 512
macromolecular radical coupling, 73–4
Makrolon 2205, 159, 169
Makrolon 2405, 159, 176
Makrolon 2805, 159
Makrolon 3105, 159
masterbatch dilution, 116–17, 125–7
masterbatches, 118–25
mechanistic models, 235–6
melt blending, 352
melt mixing, 94–7 See also continuous melt mixing
aspect ratio dependence of nanofiller localisation and migration behaviour, 600–2
CNT transfer dynamics, 608–9
agglomerate transfer from SAN-MWNT precompound-phase, 610
polymer blend morphology development mechanism, 609
selective CNT localisation in double percolated polymer blends, 597–600
co-continuous PC–SAN blend with MWCNT Baytubes, 599
MWCNT selective localisation in PA6 phase, 600
percolated CNT network structure, 598
selective localisation impact on rheological properties and blend morphology, 602–8
complex melt viscosity of PC, SAN, PC with 1wt% and PC60/SAN40, 607
phase continuity comparison, 607
rheological properties, viscosity ratios and phase inversion concentration prediction, 604–5
thermodynamic driving forces, 595–7
melt processing, 514–15, 549–51
and bulk material properties, 551–4
composite morphology, 552–4
composite preparation, 551–2
extruder torque variation, 552
polarised optical micrograph of PET/1 wt% MWCNT composite, 553
melt state rheology, 447
melting temperature, 6, 14
mesothelioma, 630
metallocene catalysts, 7–9, 354
metallocene-methylaluminoxane catalysts, 4, 513–14
metals, 336
methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ), 783
methylaluminoxane (MAO) structure, 7
microbial cytotoxicity, 628
micromechanical methods, 379
microscale Raman sensing technique, 410
microscopy techniques, 447
quantification of dispersion and distribution of carbon nanotubes, 265–91
future trends, 291
light microscopy, 269–76
transmission electron microscopy, 276–90
Mie-Tyndall scattering, 401
Miles equation, 602
minimum residence time, 120
molecular dynamics, 377–8
multi-walled carbon nanotubes, 20, 55, 92, 97–100, 193, 347, 400, 430, 513
active sites for polymerisation, 5
before and after Ar microwave plasma treatment, 36
before and after MMA plasma polymerisation treatment, 38
agglomerate size distribution, 124–5
as-grown and thermally treated, 642
with a ball of iPP at an active site, 15
characterisation, 628
characteristic features, 102
detailed TEM micrograph, 14
flame-retardant cable applications, 748–52
blends with organoclays in cable compound formulations, 754
charred compounds crack density and surface results, 750–1
heat release rates for MWCNTs in LDPE, 754
LDPE filled with different MWCNTs, 753
peak of heat release rate at heat flux = 35 kW/m2, 750
properties, 749
incorporation in polycarbonates
different melt viscosities, 108–10
different molecular weights, 110–11
macro dispersion, 124
and poly(ethylene terephthalate), 545–83
crystalline structure and crystal conformation, 554–76
future trends, 582–3
literature survey, 547–51
melt processing and bulk material properties, 551–4
rheological and electrical percolation, 579–82
thermal stability, 577–8
SEM images, 103
transformation process under O2 plasma treatment, 41
multi-walled nanotubes, 296, 311, 664
multifocal granulomas, 626
multiphase polymer blends
carbon nanotubes, 587–616
current state of polymer–carbon nanotube technology, 588–95
future trends, 615–16
localisation of CNT during melt mixing, 595–611
selective localisation utilisation, 613–15
tailoring the localisation, 611–13
multiple reflections, 337, 339
multiscale modelling
composite systems Young’s moduli
CNT lengths, 393
CNT volume fraction, 392
computational modelling tools, 377–9
continuum mechanics, 378
finite element analysis, 379
micromechanical methods, 379
molecular dynamics, 377–8
equivalent-continuum modelling concepts, 379–88
averaged scalar fields equivalence, 387–8
bulk metallic glass molecular model, 382
crystal unit cell, 381
equivalent continuum, 383–7
fibre composite microstructure, 382
kinematic equivalence, 388
molecular models length scales, 380
representative volume element, 379–83
fibre composite transverse shear modulus
stiff inclusions, 386
stiff matrix, 386
future trends, 394
polymer–carbon nanotube composites, 376–95
RVEs of non-functionalised and functionalised materials, 391
transverse Young’s moduli for CNT lengths, 394
specific equivalent-continuum modelling methods, 388–90
dynamic deformation methods, 390
fluctuation methods, 388–9
static deformation methods, 389–90
MWCNT dispersion
different polymers, 106–8
1 vol % MWCNT composites, 107
influence of screw configuration in masterbatches, 118–25
quantification, 104
specific mechanical energy input in PCL masterbatches, 126
MWCNT–organoclay-ATH flame-retardant system, 752, 754–8
MWCNT–PLLA nanocomposite, 686
MWCNT–PMMA, 692

N

N-dimethylformamide (DMF), 413
nano-confinement, 486
nanocomposites, 747
Nanocyl 3150, 613
Nanocyl 3152, 612, 613
Nanocyl 7000, 197, 612
Nanocyl NC7000, 102, 103, 104, 105, 126
nanofibres
use of polymer–carbon nanotube, 657–72
micro-nanohybrid composite, 658
nanohybrid shish-kebabs, 62–3
nanomaterial regulation, 644–7
NATO workshop regulation frameworks, 646
nanomaterials, 680–6
biomedical applications, 681
carbon nanotubes and biological structure interaction, 682–6
tissue engineering for orthopaedic applications, 683–6
public perception and ‘risk-versus-reward’ debate, 621–3
characterisation level, 622
nanoradio, 341
nanotubes, 405–21
liquid vs polymer interactions, 406–8
mechanical and spectroscopic stress–strain curves, 408
wavenumber-strain response embedded in PUA, 407
material discontinuities sensors and local stress concentrations, 408–12
normalised matrix stress data, 410
radius circular hole in infinite plate under unidirectional tensile stress, 409
strain mapping around a glass fibre, 412
molecular surface defects, 414–16
G band strain-induced shifts for carboxylated and pristine in PVA, 415
pristine Raman spectra functionalised MWCNTs, 416
strain effect on peak intensity ratio for pristine and COOH-SWNT, 415
polymer stress transfer and interface adhesion, 416–21
aligned single-walled carbon nanotube ropes image, 421
Raman peak shift, 417
stress distributions in the HMCF, 419
natural rubber
dielectric properties, 222
quasi-static stress–strain behaviour, 220
with silica partially exchanges against CNT, 217–23
strain-dependent storage modulus, 221
negative temperature coefficient (NTC), 765, 782
Neumann boundary conditions, 384
neutron activation analysis, 639
nitrile rubber, 196
non-covalent functionalisation, 26
non-isothermal crystallisation, 568–76
activation energy from the Kissinger method for PET and PET/10 wt% MWCNT composite, 576
crystallisation exotherms for PET and PET/10 wt% MWCNT composite, 570
crystallisation temperatures, 574
graphical representation of Ozawa exponents, 575
Ozawa exponents for crystallisation process, 575
relative crystallinity changes as a function of temperature, 572
relative crystallinity changes as a function of time, 573
temperature change of PET as a function of MWCNT loading, 571
non-Newtonian behaviour, 531, 532
non-thermal plasma, 33
Novocontrol impedance analyser, 308

O

optical microscopic measurements, 469
optical microscopy (OM), 779
oral cancer, 699
oriented polymer–CNT composite fibres, 659–62
Raman spectra, 660
SEM of MWNT/co-PP composite surface, 661
orthopaedic implants, 677–80
current issues, 679–80
total hip joint replacement diagram, 679
load-bearing implants, 686–93
carbon nanotubes, 687–93
osteoporotic fracture prevalence in UK and US, 678
worldwide market for medical products, 677
oscillatory shear mode test, 429
Ozawa method, 568, 571

P

PA6–SWNT composites
synthesis, 78
PANalytical X’Pert PRO diffractometer, 563
Paris plot, 224
Payne effect, 205, 462
PE–MWCNT composites, 10
PEEK, 689–90
percolation, 255, 761–2
percolation theory, 223, 299–303
AC conductivity as a function of frequency for polycarbonate with MWNT, 302
concentration dependence of the DC conductivity, 301
DC conductivities above the percolation threshold vs reduced MWNT in polycarbonate, 302
percolation threshold, 182, 299–300, 516, 517, 532, 533
periodic boundary conditions, 384
peritoneal cavity model, 627
Perkin Elmer Spectrum 1000, 554
permittivity, 333, 338
phenomenological model, 235
plasma, 33
characteristics and principal applications, 33–5
radio frequency cathodic magnetron sputtering, 34
plasma chemical functionalisation, 38–44
plasma etching, 35
plasma polymer, 35
plasma polymerisation, 35
plasma technology
surface treatment of carbon nanotubes, 25–49
plasma treatment, 33–48
surface chemistry and solution-based functionalisation, 27–33
plasticising speed, 187
Pluronic F127, 636
polarisation, 333 see also specific polarisation
polarised optical microscopy, 528, 530
polarised Raman spectroscopy, 413
poly (caprolactone), 118
poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole (PBO), 660, 662
polyaniline (PANI), 498
polycarbonate, 137, 311–12, 431–2, 437
injection moulding, 160
polycarbonate–acrylonitrile butadiene styrene–CNT blends, 613–15
resistivity of an extruded PC-ABS, 615
TEM micrograph, 614
unstained transmission light microscopy, 615
polycarbonate composites
area ratio vs mixing speed, 109
processing with different MWCNT materials, 101–6
polycarbonate–styrene-co-acrylnitrile, 321
polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 740–2
polyethylene, 391–2
polyethylene–CNT composites, 9–10
PE–CNT composites specific conductivity, 10
PE–MWCNT composites synthesis, 10
poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) multi-walled carbon nanotube
flammability, 749–50
poly(ethylene glycol), 367–8
poly(ethylene oxide), 365–6
stress–strain curves, 366
polyethylene (PE), 3
poly(ethylene terephthlate)
and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, 545–83
crystalline structure and crystal conformation, 554–76
future trends, 582–3
literature survey, 547–51
melt processing and bulk material properties, 551–4
rheological and electrical percolation, 579–82
thermal stability, 577–8
poly(ethylene terephthalate)–MWCNT composites, 547–51
melt processing, 549–51
bulk material properties, 551–4
pre-treatment, solution mixing and in-situ
polymerisation methods, 547–9
thermal stability, 577–8
TGA thermograms, 578
polyethyleneimine, 637
poly(L-lactic acid), 499
poly(l-lactide), 69
polymer architecture
metallocene catalysis, 7–9
methylaluminoxane, 7
PP microstructures, 8
zirconocenes structure, 9
polymer–carbon nanotube composites
2.5 wt% MWNT–HDPE0790 composite
and pure HDPE0390 storage vs. loss modulus, 447
transient shear stress, 454
transient shear stress vs strain, 455
CNT dispersion, aspect ratio and alignment effect in polymer matrix, 447–8, 449–53
dynamic storage modulus for PCLCN5.0 sample, 449
literature investigations on rheological results, 450–3
storage modulus comparison for blends with f-MWNT vs p-MWNT, 449
electromagnetic properties, 329–42
electromagnetic shielding CNT composites, 336–40
electromagnetic wave, 332–6
EM wave reflection, transmission and absorption through a medium, 330
other CNT composites’ electromagnetic applications, 340–2
fire-retardant application, 718–44
fire protection mechanisms, 727–30
fire-retardant solutions development, 730–4
flame-resistant coatings, 739–43
synergism, 734–9
flame-retardant cable applications, 746–58
cable with MWCNT-organoclay-ATH flame-retardant system, 752–8
carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites, 748–52
flow-induced crystallisation, 463–70
flow curves for pure PB400 and 0.1PB400 samples, 465
i-PP–PPgMA–MWCNT composite crystallisation temperature, 470
shear-enhanced crystallisation, 464–70
high-shear melt processing, 133–52
CNTs dispersion states, 134
future trends, 151–2
homopolymer–CNTs composites, 139–46
polymer blends–CNTs, 146–51
polymer nanoblends, 136–9
technique, 135–6
injection moulding, 155–91
analysis, 165–88
experiment design and materials, 159–64
kinetic parameters for isothermal flow-induced crystallisation
MWNT and pure PB400 nanocomposites, 466
linear rheological properties, 429–48
multiscale modelling, 376–95
computational modelling tools, 377–9
equivalent-continuum modelling concepts, 379–88
future trends, 394
specific equivalent-continuum modelling methods, 388–90
MWNT/HDPE0790 and pure HDPE0790
complex viscosity vs. frequency and steady shear viscosity vs. shear rate, 457
first normal stress difference vs. shear rate, 459
steady shear viscosity vs. shear rate, 456
storage modulus vs strain, 430
MWNT/HDPE0390 and pure HDPE0390 composites
complex viscosity vs. frequency, 436
phase angle vs complex modulus absolute value, 438
storage modulus vs. frequency at 200°C, 435
storage modulus vs. frequency at 200°C and 260°C, 446
MWNT/HDPE0390 composites
loss tangent vs. nanotube concentration, 439
storage and loss modulus vs nanotube concentration, 440
nanotube-filled polycarbonate
complex viscosity, 433
storage modulus G´ as function of loss modulus G″, 434
storage modulus G at 260°C, 433
non-linear rheological properties, 448–63
dynamic properties strain dependence for S-SBR-BR blends, 462
elongational viscosity, 460–1
first normal stress difference, 458–60
non-linear oscillatory measurements, 461–3
pure PC and PC–MWCNT transient elongational viscosity, 460
SWNT–PMMA nanocomposites storage
modulus frequency response, 448
transient and steady-shear viscosity, 454–8
oscillatory shear measurements, 429–34
pure PB400 and 0.1PB400 nanocomposite
isothermal flow-induced crystallisation, 467
storage modulus vs time, 468
Raman spectroscopy, 400–22
molecules and fibres under strain, 402–3
Raman effect: basic principles, 401–2
signature on carbon nanotubes, 403–5
usefulness in nanotube-based composites, 405–21
rheological percolation threshold, 434–47
different network types illustration, 441
thresholds results from reviewed publications, 442–5
rheology, 428–70
storage modulus vs strain
different frequencies for the 1 wt % MWNT–HDPE0790 composite, 431
thermal degradation, 482–503
future trends, 501–2
mechanisms/stability improvement by CNTs, 483–6
thermo-rheological history on electrical and rheological properties, 295–324
critical volume fractions of fillers at percolation threshold, 296
destruction and formation of electrical and rheological networks, 312–21
influence of processing history, 321–3
measuring techniques and materials, 309–12
thermo-rheological influence on the electrical conductivity, 297
use in fibres, 657–72
electrical properties, 667–9
future trends, 670–2
mechanical properties, 662–4
micro-nanohybrid composite, 658
orientation, 659–62
preparation of fibres, 658–9
sensing properties, 669–70
theoretical approach to reinforcement efficiency, 665–7
polymer matrix composites, 330
polymer melts
material and processing parameters on carbon nanotube dispersion, 92–128
batch compounding, 101–18
continuous melt mixing, 118–27
future trends, 127–8
literature, 97–101
melt mixing and filler dispersion, 94–7
polymer nanoblends, 136–9
polymer nanocomposites
carbon nanotubes functionalisation, 55–81
covalent functionalisation, 64–80
non-covalent functionalisation, 57–64
polymer–polymer-grafted CNTs
composites mechanical properties, 347–68
chitosan stress–strain curves, 348
fabrication, 352–3
mechanical properties, 353–68
MWCNTs composites
PMMA/PMMA-grafted stress–strain curves, 361
PP/PP-grafted fracture surfaces SEM micrographs, 356
storage moduli, 355
other polymer composites, 364–8
chitosan, 364
poly(2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene oxide), 365
polyamide, 364
polybenzimidazole, 365
poly(ethylene oxide), 365–6
polyimide, 366
poly(L-lactide), 367
polyurethane, 367–8
polymers grafting onto CNTs, 349–52
grafting-from method, 350–2
grafting-to method, 349–50
polyolefin polymer composites, 353–8
chlorinated polypropylene, 357
CPP and CPP/CPP-grafted MWCNTs stress–strain curves, 357
PE stress–strain curves, 354
poly(1-butene), 357–8
polyethylene, 353–5
polypropylene, 355–7
PP-g-MWCNTs lamellar thickness variation and mechanical property, 356
vinyl polymer composites, 358–64
poly(methyl methacrylate), 360–1
polystyrene, 361–2
poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), 362–4
poly(vinyl alcohol), 358
poly(vinyl chloride), 358–9
poly(vinylidene fluoride), 359–60
polymer wrapping, 60–2
polymer–carbon nanotube technology, 588–95
CNT localisation studies, 592–3
MWCNT blend of copolyaminde 6/12 and ethylene and methyl acrylate, 594
phase morphologies combinations, 589
scientific research development, 590
poly(methylmethacrylate), 38, 137, 339, 360–1, 414, 416, 495–6, 690–1
stress-strain curves, 361
polyolefin–CNT blends, 526–33
crystallinity, 526–30
neat PP and 5 wt% SWNT/PP composite micrographs, 529
pure isotactic polypropylene crystallisation temperatures, 527
electrical properties, 532–3
rheological properties, 530–2
MWNT content effect, 531
polyolefin CNT composites
in-situ polymerisation, 3–22
future trends, 21–2
polyethylene–CNT composites, 9–10
polymer architecture by metallocene catalysis, 7–9
polypropylene–CNT composites, 11–21
techniques, 5–7
polyolefins, 3, 511
polypropylene, 737–9
polypropylene–CNT composites, 11–21
isotactic PP–CNT composites, 11–15
catalyst [Me2Si(2-Me-Ind)2]ZrCl2/MAO, 11
catalyst Me2Si(2-Me-4Ph-Ind)2ZrCl2/MAO, 12
detailed TEM micrograph, 14
SEM micrograph of MWCNT, 15
TEM micrograph, 13
properties, 17–21
dynamic mechanical measurements, 21
filler type and isothermal crystallisation temperature, 19
sPP–MWNT composites, 18
syndiotactic PP–CNT composites, 15–17
propylene polymerisation after different pre-treatments, 16
polypropylene (PP), 3, 4
microstructures obtained by metallocene catalysts, 8
poly(sodium styrene-4-sulfonate) (PSS), 788
polystyrene, 38, 107
poly(styrene-b-butadiene-co-butylene-b-styrene), 139
poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene], 142, 144
poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), 362–4
storage moduli, 363
stress–strain curves, 363
polyurethane acrylate, 407, 409
poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), 788
polyvinylidene fluoride, 339, 359–60 ratios, 360
positive temperature coefficient (PTC), 765, 782
Pr EN 45545, 721
predispersing solvents, 197–202
prEN 50399, 757
processing history, 321–3
electric conductivity of an injection cycle, 321
injection velocity, melt and mould temperature, 322
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 628
PURE, 658
PVDF–PA6–CNTs composites electrical conductivity, 150
high-shear-processed sample, 147–8
low-shear-processed sample, 148
morphological representations, 150
stress-strain curves, 151

Q

Qenos, 430

R

radial breathing mode (RBM), 403
radiotracers, 701
Raman imaging, 100
Raman microscopy, 636
Raman scattering, 401, 413
Raman spectroscopy, 447, 550, 558–63
FWHH and peak changes as a function of MWCNT loading, 562
FWHM values and weighted peak position, 560
normalised Raman spectra for PET, MWCNTs and PET–MWCNT composites, 561
PET, MWCNTs and PET–MWCNT composites, 559
polymer-carbon nanotube composites, 400–22
molecules and fibres under strain, 402–3
Raman effect: basic principles, 401–2
Raman signature on carbon nanotubes, 403–5
SWNTs Raman spectra, 404
usefulness in nanotube-based composites, 405–21
material discontinuities sensors and local stress concentrations, 408–12
molecular surface defects, 414–16
nanotube–liquid and nanotube–polymer interactions, 406–8
orientation in polymers, 413–14
stress transfer and interface adhesion, 416–21
thermal stress sensing, 412–13
Raman Station spectrometer, 558
random closed set, 277–8
Rayleigh scattering, 401
reactive blending method, 350
representative volume element, 381
resins, 339
reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer, 67–8, 351–2
rheo-electricity, 308–10
schematic representation of rheometer, 309
rheology
polymer–carbon nanotube composites melts, 428–70
flow-induced crystallisation, 463–70
linear rheological properties, 429–48
non-linear rheological properties, 448–63
rheometers, 515
ring opening polymerisation, 47, 68–70
Runge–Kutta method, 243
rupture-dominant mechanism, 115
rupture mechanism, 97

S

SBBS–CNTs nanocomposites
processed under shear rates 440 sec–1, 1460 sec–1, 2960 sec–1, 140
stress–strain curves and strain recovery curves, 145
CNT loading = 3 wt%, 141
scanning electron microscopy, 348, 353, 779
scratch tests, 533
SEBS–MWCNT nanocomposites
electrical conductivity, 146
SEM images with different nanotube loadings, 142
storage modulus and tan δ temperature dependence, 143–4
temperature dependence, 143–4
secondary agglomeration, 117–18
MWNT in the polycarbonate melt, 117
segregated network concept, 532
sensor, 763–4, 794
shape factor, 204
shear mixing, 513
sidewall functionalisation, 30–3
silica filler, 216–25
silicone
special affinity with carbon nanotubes, 739–42
single burning item (SBI) test, 725
single-walled carbon nanohorns, 643
single-walled carbon nanotubes, 18, 55, 193, 347, 400
flame-retardant cable applications, 748, 751
heat release rate for SWCNTs in LDPE, 753
PDE filled with SWCNTs, 753
typical defects, 28
single-walled nanotubes, 664
sintering, 516
small amplitude oscillatory shear data (SAOS), 461
small angle neutron scattering techniques, 447
small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), 100–1
smart textiles, 795
solubilisation, 633–4
solution processing, 512
solution-styrene–butadiene and butadiene rubber blends, 462
solvent-casting process, 456
sonication, 513, 517
Spectra, 657
spherical contact distribution function, 277–9, 290
binarized TEM micrograph, 285
sPP–MWCNT nanocomposites, 19
properties, 18
Staphylococcus epidermis, 628
statistical percolation theory, 761
Stokes Raman scatter, 401
Stone-Wales defects, 27–8
strain-controlled rotational rheometers, 430
strain gauged factor, 787–8
stress concentration factors (SCF), 402
stress-controlled rotational rheometers, 430
structural defects, 637–8
styrene–butadiene/butadiene–rubber, 196, 217
3 phr CNT dispersion characteristics, 196
CNT concentration, 201
CNT-filled blends
strain dependency of elastic modulus, 206
matrix loaded with 3 phr CNTs, 212
mechanical and electrical properties, 211
percolation behaviour of AC resistivity, 209
quasi-static stress–strain curves, 200
silica filled blends
CNT on mechanical and electrical properties, 218
stress–strain behaviour, 218
unfilled and CNT-filled samples
dynamic-mechanical analysis, 205
quasi-static stress–strain curves, 203
styrene plasma, 38
supercritical CO2 technology, 63
surface chemistry, 634–7
surface etching, 36–7
surface resistivity, 160, 168
surfactants, 516–17
syndiotactic PP–CNT composites, 15–17

T

tearing energy, 224
tetrahydrofuran (THF), 359
thermal degradation
CNTs, 486–9
chemically treated CNT, 487–9, 490
impurities amount and type in nanotubes, 486–7
PF-functionalised MWNT synthesis, 489
PLA molecule chain length, 490
various functionalised carbon nanotubes Tonset, 490
functionalised MWNTs
synthesis and structure, 488
TGA traces, 488
future trends, 501–2
mechanisms and stability improvement by CNTs, 483–6
hydrogen bonding interaction between m-CNT and poly(ethylene 2, 6-naphthalate) matrix, 485
polyurea TGA curve, 483
polyamides, 492–4
relationship between Tonset and MWNT concentration in PA11-MWNT composites, 494
polyesters, 499–500
PLA–carboxylic, PLA–hydroxy, and PLA–pure CN5 images, 500
polymer–carbon nanotube composites, 482–503
others, 500–1
poly(methyl methacrylate), 495–6
PMMA–SWNT nanotubes dispersion effect on residues, 495
Si-MWNT–PMMA–VTES characteristic thermal degradation temperature, 496
polyolefins, 489–92, 493
iPP–MWNT nanocomposites characteristic thermal degradation temperatures, 493
styrenic polymers, 496, 497–9
β-cracking, 497
styryl-modified MWNT by esterification, 498
thermal diffusivity, 209
thermal gravimetric analysis, 534, 638
thermal plasma, 33
thermal stability
polymer–CNT composite, 483–6
barrier effect, 484
physical or chemical adsorption, 484
polymer–nanotube interaction, 484–5
radical scavenging action, 485–6
thermal conductivity, 484
thermal stress sensing, 412–13
thermal transport, 209–10
thermo-rheology
electrical and rheological properties of polymer-carbon nanotube composite, 295–324
critical volume fractions of fillers at percolation threshold, 296
destruction and formation of electrical and rheological networks, 312–21
influence of processing history, 321–3
measuring techniques and materials, 309–12
thermo-rheological influence on the electrical conductivity, 297
Thermogalactic-Grams, 560
thermogravimetry analysis, 483
thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), 736–7
thiol-coupling reaction, 350
time–temperature superposition (TTS), 446
TiO2, 624
tissue engineering, 682
orthopaedic applications, 683–6
hierarchical structure of bone and femur, 683
osteoblast on MWCNT and SWCNT cultures, 685
toulene, 512
toxicity
carbon nanotubes, 628–9
basic parameters, 630
description of three MWCNT types, 629
influence of parameters, 630–45
length, morphology and aspect ratio, 630–2
level of aggregation, 632–3
metal catalyst residues and impurities, 638–41
metal content of test samples, 640
toxicology
CNT vs other particulate materials, 623–4
traction-controlled boundary conditions See Neumann boundary conditions
transducer, 763
transient shear viscosity, 309–10
transmission electron microscopy, 276–90, 348, 461, 779
degree of dispersion, 276–7
volume specific fibre length determination, 276
digital image processing and specific examples, 281–90
binarization scheme, 283
binarized TEM images of sample 4, 289
injection moulding parameters, 286
morphological quantities of the injection moulded samples, 290
SCDF of binarized TEM micrographs, 285
TEM micrograph of an injection-moulded PC sample, 282
TEM micrograph of an injection-moulded sample 4, 287
TEM micrograph of an injection-moulded sample 5, 288
TEM micrographs of two composites, 284
distribution of coefficient, 277–9
RCS with differently distributed line segments, 278–9
orientation factor, 280–1
covariance C(r), 281
transmission line theory, 332
TS5 Laser+ Melinar, 551
Ts-Na, 103, 104
tunnelling current, 207
type and level of impurities, 641–3

U

UL94 tests, 724–5, 726, 735
classification, 725
vertical schema, 726
UL1709 tests, 742
ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), 679, 688–9
Ultrasil 7000 GR, 217
UL94V0 test, 743
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) blue book memorandum #G95-12, 676
Utracki equation, 602, 606

V

van der Waals forces, 95, 348, 447
van der Waals interaction, 403, 687
van Gurp-Palmen plot, 437
VE-cadherin, 623
viscosity, 239
volume resistivity, 158, 160, 166, 581

W

wetting coefficient, 595–6
Wicksell corpuscle problem, 266
Wiener-Khinchin theorem, 286
Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, 239–40
Wolff’s law, 680
WST-1 test, 637

X

X-ray diffraction, 563–4
d-spacings for PET composites, 564
PET, MWCNTs and PET/MWCNT composites, 563
X-ray fluorescence, 638

Y

Young’s equation, 595
Young’s modulus, 203, 353, 354, 355, 357, 358, 360, 364, 379, 392, 663, 680

Z

zirconocenes, 11
catalyst components for olefin polymerisation, 9
Zwick 1456, 196
Zylon HM, 662