Notes – The Upskilling Imperative: 5 Ways to Make Learning Core to the Way We Work



1. Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott, The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity, London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016,

2. “Careers and Learning: Real Time, All the Time,” in 2017 Global Human Capital Trends, February 28, 2017, Deloitte Insights,

3. David Mallon, High-Impact Learning Culture: The 40 Best Practices for Creating an Empowered Enterprise, Bersin & Associates Research Report, June 2010,

4. “Labor Force Projections to 2024: The Labor Force Is Growing, but Slowly,” Monthly Labor Review, December 2015, Bureau of Labor Statistics,

5. 2018 Skills Gap Report, Udemy, 2018,

6. Udemy in Depth: 2018 Millennials at Work Report, Udemy, 2018,


1. Praveen Shrestha, “Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve,” Psychestudy, November 2017,

2. William Thalheimer, Spacing Learning Over Time: What the Research Says,” Work-Learning Research, 2006.

3. “Learning Styles Debunked: There Is No Evidence Supporting Auditory and Visual Learning, Psychologists Say,” Association for Psychological Science, December 2009,

4. Jeffrey R. Young, “A Conversation with Bill Gates About the Future of Higher Education,” Chronicle of Higher Education, June 25, 2012,

5. Richard E. Clark, “Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media,” Review of Educational Research, 53, no. 4 (Winter 1983): 445–459,

6. The Science of Classroom Design, infographic, USC Rossier School of Education, 2015,

7. Saul McLeod, “What Is the Zone of Proximal Development?” Simply Psychology, updated 2019,

8. Nancy Duarte, Slide:ology: The Art and Science of Creating Great Presentations, Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2008.

9. Ricardo Schütz, “Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition,” March 2005,

10. Abraham Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being, Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1962.

11. Fogg Behavior Model,

12. Yu-kai Chou, Octalysis—The Complete Gamification Framework,

13. “Communicative Language Teaching,” Wikipedia,

14. “Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles),”,


1. Beth Davies, Connor Diemand-Yauman, and Nick van Dam, Competitive Advantage with a Human Dimension: From Lifelong Learning to Lifelong Employability, McKinsey & Company, February 2019,

2. Emily Ross, Bill Schaninger, Emily Seng Yue, Right-skilling Your Future Workforce, McKinsey & Company, August 2018,

3. Valerie Bolden-Barrett, “Study: Turnover Costs Employers $15,000 per Worker,” HR Dive, August 11, 2017,

4. 2018 Udemy Skills Gap Report, Udemy, 2018,

5. Hilary Scarlett, Neuroscience for Organizational Change: An Evidence-Based Practical Guide to Managing Change, London: Kogan Page, 2016.

6. Phone and email interview with Mike Olsson, vice president of human resources and learning development at PCL, September 13, 2019.


1. Center for the New Economy and Society, The Future of Jobs Report 2018, World Economic Forum, 2018,

2. Modern Elder Academy,

3. Phone and email interviews with Dana Alan Koch and Allison M. Horn, October 21, 2019, and January 29, 2020.

4. Tracking of formal learning hours not inclusive of on-the-job, in-the-flow-of-work learning.

5. “It’s Learning. Just Not As We Know It,” Accenture,


1. Udemy in Depth: 2018 Millennials at Work Report, Udemy, 2018,

2. What Got You Here Won’t Get You There: How Successful People Become Even More Successful, Marshall Goldsmith,

3. “Randy Pausch,” Wikipedia,

4. Carol Dweck, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, New York: Ballantine Books, 2007.

5. Idea Report: Growth Mindset Culture, NeuroLeadership Institute, 2018.


1. The Human Touch Drives Onboarding Success, ADP, 2017,

2. Pokémon Go, Wikipedia,

3. Britt Andreatta, Wired to Grow: Harness the Power of Brain Science to Learn and Master Any Skill, Santa Barbara, CA: 7th Mind Publishing, 2019.


1. “Challenges Leaders Are Facing: The Frontline Leadership Project,” 2018 Global Leadership Forecast, DDI, 2018,

2. Udemy, What Motivates Employees to Learn, San Francisco: Udemy, 2017.

3. “Supervisor Support Critical to Employee Well-Being and Workforce Readiness,” American Psychological Association, October 18, 2017,

4. “Effects of Hunger on Education,” The Borgen Project, July 2014,


1. Tera Allas, Louis Chambers, and Tom Welchman, “Confronting Overconfidence in Talent Strategy, Talent Development, and Recruitment,” McKinsey & Co., June 2019,

2. Phone and email interview with Mike Olsson, vice president of human resources and learning development at PCL, September 13, 2019.

3. “Challenges Leaders Are Facing: The Frontline Leader Project,” 2018 Global Leadership Forecast, DDI, 2018,

4. Interview with Darren Shimkus, president of Udemy for Business, San Francisco, CA, October 22, 2019.


1. Lauren Weber, “Why Companies Are Failing at Reskilling,” The Wall Street Journal, April 19, 2019,

2. Pablo Illanes, Susan Lund, Mona Mourshed, Scott Rutherford, and Magnus Tyreman, Retraining and Reskilling Workers in the Age of Automation, McKinsey & Company, January 2018,

3. Peter Coy, “Now Is Not a Good Time to Skimp on Worker Training,” October 2018, BloombergQuint,

4. 2018 Udemy Skills Gap, Udemy, 2018,

5. Burning Glass Technologies, Different Skills, Different Gaps: Measuring and Closing the Skills Gap, US Chamber of Commerce Foundation, March 2018,

6. “2017 Job Skills Training and Career Development Survey,” American Psychological Association, October 2017,

7. 2018 Udemy Skills Gap Report, Udemy, 2018,

8. “The Talent Challenge: Harnessing the Power of Human Skills in the Machine Age,” PwC, 2011,

9. “Walmart Has Added Virtual Reality to Its Assessment of an Employee’s Potential,” Washington Post, July 12, 2019,

10. Radhika Mukherjee, “The Possibilities of Technology-Enabled Learning: An Interview with Karen Hebert-Maccaro of O’Reilly Media,” HR Technologist, December 2018,

11. Phone and email interview with Ian Stevens, North American lead, capability development, at Publicis Sapient, November 11, 2019.

12. “The ROI and Value of Udemy for Business for Corporate Learning,” IDC Document #US44873719, February 2019,


1. “The Problem with ‘Learning Styles,’ ” Scientific American, May 2018,

2. Phone and email interview with Mike Olsson, vice president of human resources and learning development at PCL, September 13, 2019.